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Glowing lava flowing down a stream channel with tall rock banks.People watch from the bank tops.
March 31, 1987

Lava flow enters Queens Bath, Kilauea Volcano, 1987

Bystanders watch steam rising from Queens Bath as lava flow enters the water. Lava overran Highway 130 at 0748 Hawaii Standard Time on the same morning at the western margin of the Kapa'ahu flow. By the end of the day, Punalu'u heiau was overrun, and Queens Bath was filled with lava.

Photo taken from the air, looking down on red hot lava fountaining up from a vent, then running in red channels down a slope.
April 22, 1985

Aerial view of waning lava fountain, Kilauea Volcano, 1985

Aerial view, from the east, of waning lava fountain from Pu'u 'O'o on Hawai'i Island's Kilauea Volcano. Taken at the end of eruption episode 32. Pu'u 'O'o rose 209 meters above the pre-1983 surface (928 meters above sea level).

Image: Aerial View of Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii
January 9, 1985

Aerial View of Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii

USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory scientists monitor Mauna Loa, the largest active volcano on Earth. In this 1985 aerial photo, Mauna Loa looms above Kīlauea Volcano’s summit caldera (left center) and nearly obscures Hualālai in the far distance (upper right).

Attribution: Natural Hazards
Lava fountain 450 m (1,475 ft) high from Kīlauea Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō eruption...
September 19, 1984

Lava fountain 450 m (1,475 ft) high from Kīlauea Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō eruption...

Lava fragments ejected by lava fountains are called tephra, a general term for all fragments, regardless of size, that are blasted into the air by explosive activity. A variety of terms are also used to describe specific types of fragments, including Pele's hair, Pele's tears, scoria, spatter, bombs, and reticulite. Other terms are used to describe the size of fragments,

Low lava fountains from 1984 Mauna Loa "2,900-m vents" signaled dec...
April 8, 1984

Low lava fountains from 1984 Mauna Loa "2,900-m vents" signaled dec...

Lava production from these "2,900-m vents" began to decrease in late March but declined most rapidly between April 7 and 9 from about 300,000 m3 per hour to less than 100,000 m3 per hour. Photo taken at 9:09 a.m.

Lava flows from the 1984 eruption of Mauna Loa loom above the town ...
April 4, 1984

Lava flows from the 1984 eruption of Mauna Loa loom above the town ...

Lava flows from the 1984 eruption of Mauna Loa loom above the town of Hilo. Photograph taken near the Hilo airport on April 4.

April 2, 1984

Mauna Loa Lava Flow, April 2, 1984

A USGS scientist walks along a lava flow from the April 2, 1984 Mauna Loa eruption. The scientist stops to observe a standing wave of lava at the end. The lava flow is moving at 64 km/hr (40 mph) towards Hilo, Hawai'i. 

Lava fountains erupting from fissure on upper northeast rift zone o...
March 25, 1984

Lava fountains erupting from fissure on upper northERZ of Mauna Loa...

Pohaku Hanalei cinder-spatter cone (upper left) is located about 3.2 km (2 mi) NE from the north edge of the caldera rim. Eruption rates were as high as 2.9 million m3 per hour during the first 6 hours of the eruption, then diminished to about 0.5 million m3 per hour for the next 12 days. Sizable pahoehoe flows formed only during the first day of the eruption and within a

Red hot lava erupts vertically in the air from a cone of black, hardened lava
September 6, 1983

Low fountain of lava from Pu'u 'O'o, Kilauea Volcano, 1983

Low fountain, approximately 50 meters high, from Pu'u 'O'o on Hawai'i Island's Kilauea Volcano (viewed from the north). Lava issuing from the breach in the northeast rim of the crater produced an 'a'a flow that extended more than 4 kilometers. Eruption episode 8.

Red hot lava fountaining 100 meters into the air from a cone of hardened, black lava
September 6, 1983

100-meter lava fountain, Kilauea Volcano, 1983

Pu'u 'O'o fountain approximately 100 meters high during eruption episode 8 on Hawai'i Island's Kilauea Volcano. Dark clots of spatter land near the base of the fountain, contributing to the growth of the cone. Less dense cinder, visible in the upper right, is carried downwind of the cone.

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December 31, 1998

Today is the 16th anniversary of the ongoing Pu`u `O`o-Kupaianaha eruption of Kīlauea Volcano. Lava has erupted from vents located on Kīlauea's east rift zone since January 3, 1983.

December 24, 1998

When you visit the coast to watch lava pour into the sea, do you ever wonder where the lava came from and what path it took to the surface? We earth scientists do.

December 17, 1998

Last week, four members of the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory attended the annual fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union (AGU) in San Francisco. AGU has a membership of more than 35,000 scientists from 115 countries, and 8,275 of the members attended this meeting.

December 11, 1998

At a recent public meeting, the State of Hawai`i outlined a proposal to locate a new, approximately 2,300-bed medium-security correctional facility 10 km (6 mi) downslope from the existing, approximately 100-bed minimum-security correctional facility.

December 3, 1998

Scientists have learned a lot about the on-land part of Kīlauea's east rift zone, but little is known about its underwater part, the Puna Ridge. A research cruise late in September and October was the first to explore the ridge in detail.

November 26, 1998

Hawai`i is one of the most extensively studied volcanic regions in the world. However, there is still very little known about the processes that take place deep underneath a volcano in what geologists casually call the "plumbing system." 

November 19, 1998

One of the most useful gadgets in the geologist's tool box is the ability to measure the age of a lava flow, an island, or even the earth itself.

November 12, 1998

Lava and the surf—two powerful forces seeking supremacy over each other. One consequence of this battle is "floating rocks" seen near the ocean entry, where lava from Kīlauea's ongoing eruption reaches the south shore of the Big Island.

November 5, 1998

The terrible tragedy in Nicaragua and Honduras from Hurricane Mitch's extraordinary rainfall was made worse by a volcano. The volcano didn't erupt, and it isn't even listed separately among the 1,511 volcanoes known to have been active in the past 10,000 years. 

October 29, 1998

Every day, tourists and locals visit Kolekole stream to see 70 cubic meters of water per second (18,000 gallons per minute or gpm) cascade 135 m (442 feet) over Akaka Falls to the plunge pool below. The sight can be both dramatic and serene.

October 25, 1998

Early Sunday morning shoppers at the Volcano farmers market can purchase delicious greenhouse tomatoes grown in Mountain View. In a cool mauka (inland) environment, the greenhouse provides the essential warmth that tomatoes require.

October 15, 1998

The major part of each Hawaiian volcano lies below sea level, which creates a logistical nightmare: How does one study the submarine slopes?