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Pu‘umaKAHAKOkanaka, northeast flank of Mauna Kea, Hawai‘i...
July 11, 1988

Pu‘umaKAHAKOkanaka, NE flank of Mauna Kea, Hawai‘i

12,398 ft elev according to USGS Geographic Names Information System

Tephra jet explosion, Kīlauea Volcano, Hawai‘i...
February 3, 1988

Tephra jet explosion, Kīlauea, Hawai‘i

Explosive interaction between lava and seawater blasts a tephra jet consisting of steam, hot water, black tephra, and molten fragments into the air. This explosion is directed primarily toward the sea, but many explosions also send a shower of lava more than 10 to 20 m inland. Tehpra jets are the most common type of lava-seawater explosion, and typically occur when an open

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Glowing lava flowing down a stream channel with tall rock banks.People watch from the bank tops.
March 31, 1987

Lava flow enters Queens Bath, Kilauea Volcano, 1987

Bystanders watch steam rising from Queens Bath as lava flow enters the water. Lava overran Highway 130 at 0748 Hawaii Standard Time on the same morning at the western margin of the Kapa'ahu flow. By the end of the day, Punalu'u heiau was overrun, and Queens Bath was filled with lava.

Photo taken from the air, looking down on red hot lava fountaining up from a vent, then running in red channels down a slope.
April 22, 1985

Aerial view of waning lava fountain, Kilauea Volcano, 1985

Aerial view, from the east, of waning lava fountain from Pu'u 'O'o on Hawai'i Island's Kilauea Volcano. Taken at the end of eruption episode 32. Pu'u 'O'o rose 209 meters above the pre-1983 surface (928 meters above sea level).

Image: Aerial View of Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii
January 9, 1985

Aerial View of Mauna Loa Volcano, Hawaii

USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory scientists monitor Mauna Loa, the largest active volcano on Earth. In this 1985 aerial photo, Mauna Loa looms above Kīlauea Volcano’s summit caldera (left center) and nearly obscures Hualālai in the far distance (upper right).

Attribution: Natural Hazards
Lava fountain 450 m (1,475 ft) high from Kīlauea Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō eruption...
September 19, 1984

Lava fountain 450 m (1,475 ft) high from Kīlauea Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō eruption...

Lava fragments ejected by lava fountains are called tephra, a general term for all fragments, regardless of size, that are blasted into the air by explosive activity. A variety of terms are also used to describe specific types of fragments, including Pele's hair, Pele's tears, scoria, spatter, bombs, and reticulite. Other terms are used to describe the size of fragments,

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Low lava fountains from 1984 Mauna Loa "2,900-m vents" signaled dec...
April 8, 1984

Low lava fountains from 1984 Mauna Loa "2,900-m vents" signaled dec...

Lava production from these "2,900-m vents" began to decrease in late March but declined most rapidly between April 7 and 9 from about 300,000 m3 per hour to less than 100,000 m3 per hour. Photo taken at 9:09 a.m.

Lava flows from the 1984 eruption of Mauna Loa loom above the town ...
April 4, 1984

Lava flows from the 1984 eruption of Mauna Loa loom above the town ...

Lava flows from the 1984 eruption of Mauna Loa loom above the town of Hilo. Photograph taken near the Hilo airport on April 4.

April 2, 1984

Mauna Loa Lava Flow, April 2, 1984

A USGS scientist walks along a lava flow from the April 2, 1984 Mauna Loa eruption. The scientist stops to observe a standing wave of lava at the end. The lava flow is moving at 64 km/hr (40 mph) towards Hilo, Hawai'i. 
 

Aa lava flows erupting from Mauna Loa....
March 25, 1984

Aa lava flows erupting from Mauna Loa.

Aa lava flows erupting from Mauna Loa.

Lava fountains erupting from fissure on upper northeast rift zone o...
March 25, 1984

Lava fountains erupting from fissure on upper northERZ of Mauna Loa...

Pohaku Hanalei cinder-spatter cone (upper left) is located about 3.2 km (2 mi) NE from the north edge of the caldera rim. Eruption rates were as high as 2.9 million m3 per hour during the first 6 hours of the eruption, then diminished to about 0.5 million m3 per hour for the next 12 days. Sizable pahoehoe flows formed only during the first day of the eruption and within a

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USGS
July 9, 1993

The 10-year-long eruption on Kīlauea's East Rift Zone continues with lava flowing from the vents on the south and west sides of Pu`u `O`o to the sea in underground tubes.
 

Lava from Kīlauea's East Rift Zone lessens...
June 18, 1993

The 10-year-long eruption on Kīlauea's East Rift Zone continues, with the only change being a decrease in eruption rate over the last few weeks. This decrease in rate correlates with the slowly deepening surface of the lava pond inside the Pu`u `O`o cone, as reported last week.

USGS
June 11, 1993

The largest earthquake in Hawai`i since January 26 occurred at 2:58 a.m. Tuesday. Many residents were awakened by the shaking from this magnitude-4.9 earthquake. The Jan. 26 earthquake, which occurred beneath Pahala, had a comparable magnitude. 

USGS
June 4, 1993

This week marks the anniversary of one of the largest of Mauna Loa's historic eruptions. On June 1, 1950, the last great eruption of Mauna Loa began just after 9:00 p.m. 

Eruption's flows continue, danger remains...
May 28, 1993

The eruption on Kīlauea's East Rift Zone continues with little change. The episode 51 and 53 vents on the southwest flank of the Pu`u `O`o cone continue to feed lava directly into a tube system that transports the lava to Palama Pali and beyond, to the ocean entries at Kamoamoa. 
 

USGS
May 21, 1993

A magnitude 3.0 earthquake was widely felt in the Hilo area on Thursday afternoon at 1:45 p.m. The earthquake was about 25 miles deep and was located offshore about 10 miles east of Hilo. 

USGS
May 15, 1993

Volcanoes around the world emit a variety of gases in different proportions, with the main components invariably being carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur dioxide. Minor components include, but are not limited to, hydrogen gas, carbon monoxide, hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, methane, and hydrogen sulfide.
 

USGS
May 14, 1993

May 18 marks the anniversary of the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens that laid waste to over 200 square miles of forest and killed 57 people, as well as thousands of wild animals and birds.
 

USGS
May 10, 1993

Kīlauea is famous for eruptions of the type we are now experiencing - quiet effusion of lava that makes the eruption approachable. However, not all of Kīlauea's eruptions have been so passive and approachable.

USGS
May 7, 1993

The 10-year-long eruption along Kīlauea's East Rift Zone continues with little change. Active flows travel underground to the ocean in lava tubes from the eruptive vents on the south and west sides of the Pu`u `O`o cone.
 

As lava slows, diversion of Etna discussed...
May 1, 1993

The episode 51 vents on the west flank of Pu`u `O`o were active from April 23 at about 11:00 a.m. until April 28 at 11:30 a.m., when the eruption stopped once again. Since then, the lava lake inside Pu`u `O`o vent has risen from about 140 to between 120 and 130 feet below the rim of the crater.
 

USGS
April 30, 1993

The 10-year-long eruption on Kīlauea's East Rift Zone continues with little change. During the week, the lavaentries into the ocean consolidated to three main entries on the east and west edges of the Kamoamoa flow and near the west edge of the Lae`apuki flow.