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video thumbnail: Mauna Loa Volcano Hawaii -- 1930s Eruption (Part 3 of 5)
December 31, 1929

Mauna Loa Volcano Hawaii -- 1930s Eruption (Part 3 of 5)

Part 3 of 5

Remarkable silent film, 16mm Kodachrome movie film. Probably the first color film ever made of a volcanic eruption. Mokuaweoweo Crater eruption filmed probably in late 1935 by Harold T. Stearns, a USGS Hydrologist-Volcanologist. The lava fountains are hundreds of feet high, the erupting fissure inside the crater is about two thousand feet long. The

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video thumbnail: Mauna Loa Volcano Hawaii -- 1930s Eruption (Part 4 of 5)
December 31, 1929

Mauna Loa Volcano Hawaii -- 1930s Eruption (Part 4 of 5)

Part 4 of 5

Remarkable silent film, 16mm Kodachrome movie film. Probably the first color film ever made of a volcanic eruption. Mokuaweoweo Crater eruption filmed probably in late 1935 by Harold T. Stearns, a USGS Hydrologist-Volcanologist. The lava fountains are hundreds of feet high, the erupting fissure inside the crater is about two thousand feet long. The

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video thumbnail: Mauna Loa Volcano Hawaii -- 1930s Eruption (Part 5 of 5)
December 31, 1929

Mauna Loa Volcano Hawaii -- 1930s Eruption (Part 5 of 5)

Part 5 of 5

Remarkable silent film, 16mm Kodachrome movie film. Probably the first color film ever made of a volcanic eruption. Mokuaweoweo Crater eruption filmed probably in late 1935 by Harold T. Stearns, a USGS Hydrologist-Volcanologist. The lava fountains are hundreds of feet high, the erupting fissure inside the crater is about two thousand feet long. The

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Ejected tephra from Halemaumau at Kīlauea Volcano, May 31, 1924...
May 31, 1924

Ejected tephra from Halemaumau at Kīlauea, May 31, 1925

This scene west of Halemaumau looks toward the rim of the caldera, southwest of Uēkahuna Bluff. New ballistic blocks and ash from the 1924 eruption coat the floor of the caldera.

Airplane landing field at Kīlauea Volcano strewn with blocks from s...
May 22, 1924

Airplane landing field at Kīlauea strewn with blocks from several e...

Prior to the eruption of 1924, this area was swept clean and used as a landing field for airplanes. This view looking toward the north rim of Halemaumau shows the air field littered with ballistic blocks from explosions in the 1924 eruption.

Explosion from Halemaumau at Kīlauea Volcano as viewed from Uēkahun...
May 18, 1924

Explosion from Halemaumau at Kīlauea May 18, 1924.

This was probably the strongest explosion of the eruption. Rocks and debris fell among spectators southeast of Halemaumau, causing one fatality. A torrential downpour and an electrical storm followed.

Spectators flee explosion from Halemaumau at Kīlauea Volcano, 1114 ...
May 18, 1924

Spectators flee explosion from Halemaumau at Kīlauea, May 18, 1925

Acting HVO director Ruy Finch snapped this photograph of spectators running away as large blocks were tossed about 600 meters (2000 feet) onto an airplane landing field. Lorrin A. Thurston provided this description: "About three minutes later with a sudden dull roar a column of inky black eruption cloud shot upward from the pit and great masses of gray ash rolled out from

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Park superintendent Thomas Boles after a narrow escape at Kīlauea V...
May 14, 1924

Park superintendent Thomas Boles after a narrow escape at Kīlauea, ...

Boles poses on the grounds of the Volcano House hotel with the Halemaumau eruption plume in the background. He fell cutting his hands and a knee while fleeing an explosion the day before. After his close call the superintendent barred all public access within two miles of Halemaumau.

Explosion at Halemaumau as seen from Uēkahuna Bluff, at Kīlauea Vol...
May 13, 1924

Explosion at Halema‘uma‘u as seen from Uēkahuna Bluff, at Kīlauea, ...

Eight persons, including newspaper and movie men observing the scene at Halema‘uma‘u, were caught in a rain of hot rocks from this explosion. The rocks emitted hissing sounds as hot gas, mainly steam, escaped from them. Park superintendent Thomas Boles was knocked down twice by this bombardment.

Observer examines boulder ejected from Halemaumau, at Kīlauea Volca...
May 11, 1924

Boulder ejected from Halemaumau, at Kīlauea, May 11, 1925

On May 11, Ruy Finch and W.O. Clark visited Halemaumau and found a rock fragment weighing about 180 kg (400 pounds) that had been thrown 60 meters (200 feet) from the rim of the crater.

One of the first explosion clouds from Halemaumau, at Kīlauea Volca...
May 10, 1924

First explosion clouds from Halemaumau, Kīlauea 1925

Later scientists at the Observatory listed May 10 as the first day of the eruptive series. Between this date and May 27, they carefully recorded all explosions, ballistic falls, electric storms, and muddy rains as well as earthquakes felt and recorded on seismographs.

Scientists looking into the bright glow of Mauna Loa's 1942 eruptiv...
April 28, 1924

Scientists looking into bright glow of Mauna Loa's 1942 eruptive ve...

Scientists looking into the bright glow of Mauna Loa's 1942 eruptive vent. Eruption occurred during WWII and was not publicized to prevent Japanese war planes from navigating to the island at night.

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USGS
September 11, 1992

"With all the lava being erupted, is there a large, empty space within the Earth where the lava came from?" This is a frequent question answered by the staff of the U.S. Geological Survey's Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, and the answer is "no."
 

Kīlauea vents active but lava has slowed...
September 7, 1992

The episode 51 vents have been continuously active since early in the morning on July 27. The active vents are located just west of the Pu`u `O`o cinder and spatter cone on the East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano. Episode 51 has been characterized by intermittent activity since it began on March 7.
 

USGS
September 4, 1992

To the non-geologist, lava is hot, orange molten rock, or when cooled, smooth and gray, or black and jagged rock. However, to the geologist or volcanologist, lava contains a set of clues to decipher processes occurring in the interior of the Earth and the volcano.

USGS
August 14, 1992

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory's primary purpose is to understand how volcanic systems operate. All of the work we do in defining geological hazards posed by the volcanoes, and short-term monitoring of eruptions and lava flows, is made possible by developing this fundamental understanding of volcanic systems.

Episode 51 vents become active again...
July 31, 1992

The episode 51 vents once again became active early Monday morning after a brief pause since the previous Thursday morning. Prior to this last pause, eruptive activity had been continuous since June 21.

Lava expected to flow over pali toward Kamoamoa soon...
July 17, 1992

The episode 51 vents adjacent to Pu`u `O`o on the East Rift Zone of Kīlauea Volcano have been in continuous eruption since before dawn on June 21. Until this period, episode 51 has been characterized by off-and-on activity since it began on March 7. The current eruptive interval is by far the longest and most stable since that time.
 

USGS
July 10, 1992

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory has joined forces with the University of Hawai`i to promote the collaborative study of volcanoes with the initiation of a new Hawai`i Center for Volcanology. On Tuesday this new center was officially announced during a press conference held in Honolulu on the university campus.

HVO maintains wide seismic network on the Big Island...
July 3, 1992

The Hawaiian Volcano Observatory maintains a network of about 50 seismic stations on the Island of Hawai`i. The purpose of the network is twofold: to define the regional seismicity of the Island of Hawai`i, and to distinguish and study earthquakes as they relate to major fault zones and to the eruption and intrusion of magma. 

Current eruption continuing at low levels...
June 26, 1992

We will cover activity during the last two weeks, since we missed our deadline last week. The episode 51 vents on the west flank of Pu`u `O`o, which began erupting on Wednesday, June 10, shut down on June 16. The vents were then inactive until Sunday, June 21, and have continued to be active through June 26.
 

Kīlauea's not Hawaii's only active volcano...
June 12, 1992

The volcanic hazards posed by Kīlauea Volcano are obvious to everyone who sees the active eruptions and visits Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park, where the starkness of much of the volcanic landscape is a testament to the recency of activity. 

Volcano slides are often the cause of strong earthquakes...
June 5, 1992

Moderate to large earthquakes located beneath the south flank of Kīlauea Volcano are commonly caused by seaward sliding of that part of the volcano. On Friday, May 29, at 2:03 p.m., a 3.3-magnitude earthquakeoccurred about five miles deep and 15 miles offshore from Kīlauea's shoreline. 

Sputtering lava flows build behind shield...
May 22, 1992

The episode 51 vents on the west flank of Pu`u `O`o which were inactive for six days starting Tuesday, April 28, were in continuous eruption since Monday, May 4, starting at about noon, until Friday afternoon. During this 18-day interval, the eruption was nearly constant in level of activity, as seen in tremor of nearly constant amplitude.