Unified Interior Regions

Hawaii

The Pacific Region has nine USGS Science Centers in California, Nevada, and Hawaii. The Regional Office, headquartered in Sacramento, provides Center oversight and support, facilitates internal and external collaborations, and works to further USGS strategic science directions.

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Filter Total Items: 68
Date published: June 26, 2018
Status: Active

Monitoring Bird and Rat Behavior to Improve Invasive Species Management

Introduced rats are notorious predators of birds and their nests worldwide, but especially on remote islands. Rats (Rattus exulans) first arrived in Hawai‘i with Polynesian colonists about 1,000 years ago, resulting in deleterious consequences for native birds and ecosystems. Since Western contact in 1778, two additional rat species have become established in Hawai‘i, including the highly...

Date published: June 15, 2018
Status: Active

Preliminary Landslide Susceptibility Maps and Data for Hawaii

Landslide Susceptibility Data and Maps provide tools for hazard assessment prior to an event that may cause landslides.

Date published: June 6, 2018
Status: Active

Using Plant Physiologic Responses to Environmental Conditions to Improve Species and Habitat Management in Hawaii

Recent studies show that past and ongoing environmental changes have been substantial and have likely already affected conservation efforts in Hawai‘i. Much of the state has experienced substantial drying, including decreases in mean annual precipitation since the 1920s, longer rainless periods, and decreasing stream flow. Temperatures have been increasing in Hawai‘i for the last 40 years,...

Date published: January 18, 2018
Status: Active

National Assessment of Coastal Vulnerability to Sea Level Rise

The original national coastal vulnerability index (CVI) assessment was motivated by expected accelerated sea-level rise (SLR) and the uncertainty in the response of the coastline to SLR. This research was conducted between 1999 and 2001, and is currently being updated using new data sources and methodology. This original study was part of the ...

Date published: January 18, 2018
Status: Active

Long-Term Coastal Change

Goals of this task include developing and improving coastal-change assessments and supporting long-term planning and decision making to ensure sustainable coastal economies, infrastructure, and ecosystems.

Date published: January 11, 2018
Status: Completed

Studies on the Rapidly Eroding Reef

This study focuses on assessing changes in vegetation cover and composition inside and outside a fenced exclosure within the USGS Ridge-to-Reef study area on the island of Moloka‘i. This information will be delivered to federal, state, and private land managers who are trying to determine best management practices to reduce erosion and sediment runoff from this dry habitat which has been...

Date published: December 27, 2017
Status: Completed

Adaptation in Montane Plants

Montane plant communities in widely separated intact natural environments of the world have responded to changes in precipitation and temperature regimes by shifting both margins and core distributional ranges upward in elevation.  Reduced evapotranspiration rates in cooler climate zones at higher elevation may compensate for less precipitation and higher temperatures within species’ former...

Date published: November 21, 2017
Status: Active

Efficacy of Avian Botulism Surveillance and Mitigation Using Detection Canines

Avian botulism causes waterbird mortality in Hawai‘i's wetlands and elsewhere. We will evaluate using trained scent-detection canines (sniffer dogs) as a new tool to survey for the presence of avian botulism. Biologists will compare variables influencing detection probability and detection rates with traditional search methods. The pilot study will test the feasibility of this approach as a...

Date published: September 18, 2017
Status: Active

Webinar: Rainfall Variability and Drought in the Hawaiian Islands

View this webinar to learn about the state of the science on drought in Hawai'i.

Contacts: Abby Frazier
Date published: August 11, 2017
Status: Completed

Invasive Mammals of the Pacific

The terrestrial biota of the Central Pacific is primarily defined by its degree of isolation.  At the center lies the Hawaiian Archipelago, which is more than 3,200 km from any continental land mass.  After tens of millions of years of evolutionary isolation from all mammals except bats, islands of the Central Pacific were quite suddenly besieged by a number of alien rodents, carnivores and...

Date published: July 13, 2017
Status: Active

Shorebird Research

With its vast size and geographic position at the northern end of several migration pathways, Alaska is a critically important site for the world’s shorebirds. Thirty-seven shorebird species regularly breed in Alaska. Most of these species conduct epically long migrations to take advantage of Alaska’s abundant food resources and breeding habitat, making Alaska a global resource for shorebirds...

Filter Total Items: 89
Date published: January 1, 2019

Projected flood extent polygons and flood depth points based on 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year wave-energy return periods, with and without coral reefs, for the Territory of Puerto Rico (the islands of Culebra, Puerto Rico, and Vieques)

This part of the data release presents projected flooding extent polygon (flood masks) and flooding depth points (flood points) shapefiles based on wave-driven total water levels for the Territory of Puerto Rico (the islands of Culebra, Puerto Rico, and Vieques). For each island there are 8 associated flood mask and flood depth shapefiles: one for each four nearshore wave energy

Date published: January 1, 2019

Coral disease data by transect, West Hawaii, 2011

Observations of coral disease and health indicators were documented by scuba divers along pre-determined transects and are presented here in comma-separated format. Included in the table are coral species observed, colony size, types and number of indicators observed, and a size range of indicators observed.

Date published: January 1, 2019

Deployments of autonomous, GPS ocean ocean-surface drifters, Makua, Kauai, USA, August 2016

Satellite-tracked, DGPS-equipped Lagrangian surface-current drifter deployments were conducted over 6 days between 30 July and 4 August 2016 at various locations and stages of the tide over the coral reef off Makua, HI. The drifters internally logged their location every 1 minute, and they transmitted their positions to satellites every 5 minutes. A drogue was attached to the drifters at 1

Date published: January 1, 2019

Coral Point Count (CPCe) summary data by transect, West Hawaii, 2010-2011

Coral Point Count with Excel extensions (CPCe; Kohler and Gill, 2006) was used to help calculate percent of coral cover or other benthic substrates from a randomly selected subset of seafloor photographs collected on the west Hawaii Island coast.

Date published: January 1, 2019

Nearshore Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) profile data, Makua, Kauai, USA, August 2016

Along-shore surface-based 2D electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) surveys were collected in the nearshore region of Makua, Kauai.

Date published: January 1, 2019

Surface-water temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity data from nearshore coral reef locations along the west coast of Hawaii Island (2010-2013)

Spatial measurements of water temperature, specific conductance, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, and turbidity between 0.25 and 0.50 m water depth were collected every 10-seconds along and across shore at 12 principal study areas along west and east Hawaii Island. Measurements were made between 2010 and 2013 during different seasons and tide states over the course of 1.0 to 2.5 hours to

Date published: January 1, 2019

Time-series oceanographic data collected off Makua, Kauai, USA, August 2016

Time-series data of water-surface elevation, wave height, water-column currents, temperature were acquired for 6 days off the north coast of the island of Kauai, Hawaii in support of a study on the coastal circulation patterns and groundwater input to the coral reefs of Makua.

Date published: January 1, 2019

Vibracore photographs, computed tomography scans, and core-log descriptions from Anahola Valley, Kaua'i, Hawai'i

This portion of the data release contains information on vibracores that were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Anahola Valley, Kaua'i, Hawai'i in 2015. Sites were cored in order to identify potential tsunami deposits and describe wetland stratigraphy. These vibracores contain mud, peat, volcanic sands, and carbonate sands, reflecting deposition in a variety of coastal en

Date published: January 1, 2019

Time-series oceanographic data of currents and waves from bottom-mounted instrument packages off Waiakane, Molokai, HI, 2018

Time series data of water surface elevation, wave height, and water column currents and temperature were acquired at seven locations for 86 days off of Waiakane on the south coast of the island of Molokai, Hawaii, in support of a study on the coastal circulation patterns and the transformation of surface waves over the coral reefs.

Date published: January 1, 2019

Vibracore photographs, computed tomography scans, and core-log descriptions from Pololu Valley, Island of Hawaii

This portion of the data release contains information on vibracores that were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in Pololu Valley, Island of Hawai'i in 2014. Five sites were cored in order to describe wetland stratigraphy and to identify potential tsunami deposits. These vibracores contain mud, peat, fluvial sands, and marine volcanic sands, reflecting deposition in a variety of

Date published: January 1, 2019

Near-surface measurements of Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) data, Makua, Kauai, USA, August 2016

Transects of near-surface seawater properties were collected over the fringing reef off Makua, HI, on the north shore of Kauai using a Conductivity-Temperature-Depth (CTD) logger, either hand-carried or mounted to a kayak. The instrument returns temperature, salinity as a function of depth, and latitude/longitude.

Date published: June 18, 2018

Northwestern Hawaiian Islands: Impacts to Avifauna from the Tohoku Tsunami 2011

This collection of nine datasets covers Midway Atoll and Laysan Island in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, and was created to help estimate the impacts of the March 11, 2011 tsunami event on avifauna in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. 

Filter Total Items: 375
Color map of lava lake at volcano summit
March 29, 2021

 

March 29, 2021—Kīlauea summit eruption contour map showing lava lake level and elevations of features within the caldera

Color map of lava lake temperature
March 28, 2021

March 26, 2021—Kīlauea summit eruption thermal map constructed from aerial imagery

Color map of lava lake at volcano summit
March 12, 2021

March 12, 2021—Kīlauea summit eruption contour map showing lava lake level and elevations of features within the caldera

Color animated gif of lava lake rise
March 9, 2021

ANIMATED GIF: This animated image file (GIF) includes a series of thermal maps—ranging from daily to several weeks apart—made from helicopter overflight thermal imagery of Halema‘uma‘u crater, Kīlauea summit.

Maps showing lava lake growth
March 8, 2021

HVO uses regular Kīlauea summit helicopter overflights of Halema‘uma‘u crater to create digital elevation models (DEMs) of the crater.

Color map of lava lake depth
March 8, 2021

Data from a Kīlauea summit helicopter overflight on March 4th allowed for the calculation of the depth of the lava in Halema‘uma‘u crater. 

March 5, 2021—Kīlauea summit eruption contour map showing lava lake level and elevations of features within the caldera
March 5, 2021

March 5, 2021—Kīlauea summit eruption contour map showing lava lake level and elevations of features within the caldera

A helicopter overflight on March 4, 2021, allowed for aerial visual and thermal imagery to be collected of the eruption
March 5, 2021

March 4, 2021—Kīlauea summit eruption thermal map constructed from aerial imagery

Color map of lava lake and volcano summit
February 26, 2021

 

February 26, 2021—Kīlauea summit eruption contour map showing lava lake level and elevations of features within the caldera

Thermal map from February 16 overflight
February 19, 2021

February 16, 2021—Kīlauea summit eruption thermal map constructed from aerial imagery

Color map of volcano summit and lava lake
February 11, 2021

February 11, 2021—Kīlauea summit eruption contour map showing lava lake level and elevations of features within the caldera

A helicopter overflight on February 9, 2021, at approximately 9:20 a.m. HST
February 10, 2021

February 9, 2021—Kīlauea summit eruption thermal map constructed from aerial imagery

Filter Total Items: 121
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Year Published: 2016

Historical files from Federal Government mineral exploration-assistance programs, 1950 to 1974

The Defense Minerals Administration (DMA), Defense Minerals Exploration Administration (DMEA), and Office of Minerals Exploration (OME) mineral exploration programs were active over the period 1950–1974. Under these programs, the Federal Government contributed financial assistance in the exploration for certain strategic and critical minerals. The...

Frank, David G.
Frank, D.G., 2016, Historical files from Federal Government mineral exploration-assistance programs, 1950 to 1974: U.S. Geological Survey Data Series 1004, http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ds1004.

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Year Published: 2015

Dim ultraviolet light as a means of deterring activity by the Hawaiian hoary bat Lasiurus cinereus semotus

Widespread bat fatalities at industrial wind turbines are a conservation issue with the potential to inhibit efficient use of an abundant source of energy. Bat fatalities can be reduced by altering turbine operations, but such curtailment decreases turbine efficiency. If additional ways of reducing bat fatalities at wind turbines were available...

Gorresen, P. Marcos; Cryan, Paul M.; Dalton, David C.; Wolf, Sandy; Johnson, Jessica A.; Todd, Christopher M.; Bonaccorso, Frank J.
Gorresen, P.M., P.M. Cryan, D. Dalton, J. Johnson, C. Todd, S. Wolf, and F.J. Bonaccorso. 2015. Dim ultraviolet light as a means of deterring activity by the Hawaiian hoary bat (Lasiurus cinereus semotus). Endangered Species Research 28:249-257.

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Year Published: 2015

Avian malaria in Hawaiian forest birds: Infection and population impacts across species and elevations

Wildlife diseases can present significant threats to ecological systems and biological diversity, as well as domestic animal and human health. However, determining the dynamics of wildlife diseases and understanding the impact on host populations is a significant challenge. In Hawai‘i, there is ample circumstantial evidence that introduced...

Samuel, Michael D.; Woodworth, Bethany L.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Hart, P. J.; LaPointe, Dennis

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Year Published: 2015

Mean annual water-budget components for the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, for average climate conditions, 1978-2007 rainfall and 2010 land cover

The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for the Island of Oahu, Hawaii. The water-budget components in the shapefile were computed by a water-budget model for a scenario representative of average climate conditions (1978-2007 rainfall) and 2010 land...

Engott, John A.
Engott, J.A., 2015, Mean annual water-budget components for the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, for average climate conditions, 1978-2007 rainfall and 2010 land cover: USGS Water Resources NSDI Node, accessed February 23, 2015, at http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7XP72ZX.

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Year Published: 2015

Mean annual water-budget components for the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, for drought conditions, 1998-2002 rainfall and 2010 land cover

The shapefile associated with this metadata file represents the spatial distribution of mean annual water-budget components, in inches, for the Island of Oahu, Hawaii. The water-budget components in the shapefile were computed by a water-budget model for a scenario representative of drought conditions (1998-2002 rainfall) and 2010 land cover, as...

Engott, John A.
Engott, J.A., 2015, Mean annual water-budget components for the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, for drought conditions, 1998-2002 rainfall and 2010 land cover: USGS Water Resources NSDI Node, accessed February 23, 2015, at http://dx.doi.org/10.5066/F7SX6B7M.

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Year Published: 2015

Baseline water-quality sampling to infer nutrient and contaminant sources at Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park, Island of Hawai‘i, 2009

Baseline water-quality sampling was conducted for dissolved nutrients and for chemical and isotopic tracers at Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park on the Island of Hawai'i. Existing and future urbanization in the surrounding areas have the potential to affect water quality in the Park, and so the National Park Service and the U.S. Geological...

Hunt, Charles D.
Hunt, C.D., Jr., 2014, Baseline water-quality sampling to infer nutrient and contaminant sources at Kaloko-Honokōhau National Historical Park, Island of Hawai‘i, 2009: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2014-5158, 52 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20145158.

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Year Published: 2015

One carp, two carp: are there more carp in the Wailoa River?

The February, 2015 issue of Hawaii Fishing News included the annual list of Hawai`i records for the largest fish of various species caught in the state. Among the new records was one for a 15-pound grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) caught by Avery Berido in the Wailoa River at Hilo on September 13, 2013. A photograph taken by Mr. Berido of the...

Mundy, Bruce C; Nico, Leo; Tagawa, Annette
Mundy B., Nico, L.G., and Tagawa, A., 2015, One carp, two carp: Are there more grass carp in the Wailoa River?: Hawaii Fishing News, v. 40, no. 6, p. 18-19.

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Year Published: 2014

Low-flow characteristics of streams in the Lahaina District, West Maui, Hawai'i

The purpose of this study was to characterize streamflow availability under natural low-flow conditions for streams in the Lahaina District, west Maui, Hawaiʻi. The study-area streams included Honolua Stream and tributary Pāpua Gulch, Honokahua Stream and tributary Mokupeʻa Gulch, Kahana Stream, Honokōwai Stream and tributaries Amalu and Kapāloa...

Cheng, Chui Ling
Low-flow characteristics of streams in the Lahaina District, West Maui, Hawai'i; 2014; SIR; 2014-5087; Cheng, Chui Ling

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Year Published: 2014

Relation of landslides triggered by the Kiholo Bay earthquake to modeled ground motion

The 2006 Kiholo Bay, Hawaii, earthquake triggered high concentrations of rock falls and slides in the steep canyons of the Kohala Mountains along the north coast of Hawaii. Within these mountains and canyons a complex distribution of landslides was triggered by the earthquake shaking. In parts of the area, landslides were preferentially located on...

Harp, Edwin L.; Hartzell, Stephen H.; Jibson, Randall W.; Ramirez-Guzman, L.; Schmitt, Robert G.

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Year Published: 2013

Vegetation map of the watersheds between Kawela and Kamalō Gulches, Island of Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi

In this document we describe the methods and results of a project to produce a large-scale map of the dominant plant communities for an area of 5,118.5 hectares encompassing the Kawela and Kamalō watersheds on the island of Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi, using digital image analysis of multi-spectral satellite imagery. Besides providing a base map of the area...

Jacobi, James D.; Ambagis, Stephen
Vegetation map of the watersheds between Kawela and Kamalō Gulches, Island of Molokaʻi, Hawaiʻi; 2013; SIR; 2013-5093; Jacobi, James D.; Ambagis, Stephen

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Year Published: 2013

The magnetic tides of Honolulu

We review the phenomenon of time-stationary, periodic quiet-time geomagnetic tides. These are generated by the ionospheric and oceanic dynamos, and, to a lesser-extent, by the quiet-time magnetosphere, and they are affected by currents induced in the Earth's electrically conducting interior. We examine historical time series of hourly magnetic-...

Love, Jeffrey J.; Rigler, Erin Joshua
The magnetic tides of Honolulu; 2013; Abstract or summary; Conference publication; Progress in EM Induction Studies of Crust and Mantle From Land, Sea, Air, and Space lll Posters; Love, Jeffrey J.;Rigler, Erin Joshua.

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Year Published: 2013

Freshwater and drought on Pacific Islands

Izuka, Scot K.; Keener, Victoria
Freshwater and drought on Pacific Islands; 2013; Book chapter; Book; Climate Change and Pacific Islands: Indicators and Impacts: Report for the 2012 Pacific Islands Regional Climate Assessment; Scot K Izuka; Keener, Victoria

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Color photograph of volcanic vent
October 8, 2021

October 8, 2021 — Kīlauea summit eruption

In this overflight photo of the Halema‘uma‘u lava lake, captured on October 8, 2021 and looking from the northeast, two western fissures are visible: one inactive from the December 2020–May 2021 Kīlauea summit eruption (center), and another actively feeding lava into the lake at this time (upper-right). The older fissure is is being partially overlapped by short lava flows

...
Color photograph of active lava lake
October 8, 2021

October 8, 2021 — Kīlauea summit eruption

On the morning of October 8, 2021, HVO scientists completed a routine helicopter overflight of the ongoing eruption within Halema‘uma‘u at the summit of Kīlauea. This overview photo of the lava lake was captured from the northeast, with the erupting western fissure in the right of the frame, and a number of islands from the December 2020–May 2021 lava lake visible in the

...
Color photograph of lava lake and rainbow
October 8, 2021

October 8, 2021 — Kīlauea summit eruption

Though not every ānuenue (rainbow) has an actively erupting volcanic fissure at its end, this one did for a brief moment during HVO scientists' helicopter overflight of the Kīlauea summit on the morning of October 8, 2021. Misty rains were clearing at the time, forming the rainbow and allowing the scientists a mostly clear view of the western fissure feeding lava into

...
Color map showing lava lake rise
October 8, 2021

October 8, 2021 — Kīlauea, Halema‘uma‘u Lava Lake Growth

The eruption within Halema‘uma‘u crater, at Kīlauea's summit, continues to feed a growing lava lake. Photos taken during helicopter overflights of the crater allow HVO scientists to create elevation maps of the rising lake’s surface. The surface area of the Halema‘uma‘u lava lake is now 553000 square meters, or 157 acres. At its widest point, the lake is a kilometer wide (

...
Color map showing lava lake rise
October 8, 2021

October 8, 2021 — Kīlauea, Halema‘uma‘u Lava Lake Growth

The surface area of the Halema‘uma‘u lava lake at the summit of Kīlauea is now 553,000 square meters, or 157 acres. At its widest point, the lake is a kilometer wide (0.62 mile). The colored lines show the perimeter of the lake prior to the recent eruption (pink, data from June 8), one day into the eruption (orange, September 30), and over a week into the eruption (red,

...
Color graph depicting lava lake rise
October 8, 2021

October 8, 2021 — Kīlauea, Halema‘uma‘u Lava Lake Depth

The elevation profiles running East-West across Halema‘uma‘u crater show the rise of the lava lake surface during the ongoing eruption at the summit of Kīlauea. The lake lake is now about 260 m (850 feet) deep, and has risen nearly 30 m (98 feet) above the previous lake surface since the eruption began on September 29. More 15 million cubic meters of lava (4.2 billion

...
Color photograph of volcanic vent and bird
October 8, 2021

October 8, 2021 — Kīlauea, active west vent in Halema‘uma‘u crater

A Koa‘e Kea (white-tailed tropicbird) flies above the erupting west vent within Halema‘uma‘u crater, at the summit of Kīlauea. Photo taken from the south rim of Halema‘uma‘u at 10:41 a.m. HST on Oct. 8, 2021. USGS photo by J.M. Chang. 

Color photograph of scientist monitoring eruption
October 8, 2021

October 8, 2021 — Kīlauea summit eruption monitoring

USGS scientist takes video of the erupting west vent within Halema‘uma‘u crater, at the summit of Kīlauea. Photo taken from the northwest rim of Halema‘uma‘u at 12:27 p.m. HST on Oct. 8, 2021. USGS photo by J.M. Chang.

Color photograph of lava lake
October 7, 2021

Kīlauea summit eruption in Halema‘uma‘u crater – October 7, 2021

A wide view of the ongoing Kīlauea summit eruption within Halema‘uma‘u, taken from the northwest rim of the crater. The west vent lava fountains (right) continues to supply lava into the slowly rising lava lake. Lava fountaining is no longer visible through the central and southern portions of the lava lake surface. Over the past day or two the surface crust in the north

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Color photograph of volcanic vent
October 7, 2021

October 7, 2021 — Kīlauea eruption

The eruption continues in Halema‘uma‘u crater, at Kīlauea summit. This view from the southern crater rim shows the west vent fountains (center) supplying lava into the western portion of the lava lake. SO2 gas emission rates remain elevated, and were measured at 4,700 tonnes per day on October 7. USGS photo taken by L. DeSmither on October 7, 2021.

October 7, 2021

October 7, 2021 — Kīlauea volcanic vent

The eruption continues in Halema‘uma‘u crater, at the summit of Kīlauea. Lava fountaining no longer emerges from the central portion of the lake, with fountaining limited to the west vent shown here. Low fountaining within the cone supplies lava into the lake via a short spillway. 

Color photograph of island in lava lake
October 7, 2021

October 7, 2021 — Kīlauea eruption

Late afternoon sunlight illuminates the main island in the lava lake in Halema‘uma‘u crater, at the summit of Kīlauea. The island formed in the previous summit eruption (December 2020-May 2021), and was covered with fresh spatter during the opening stages of the current eruption. USGS photo by M. Patrick.

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USGS science for a changing world
September 29, 2021

Kīlauea volcano is not erupting. Increased earthquake activity and changes in the patterns of ground deformation at Kīlauea’s summit began occurring as of approximately noon on September 29, 2021, indicating movement of magma in the subsurface.

Color photograph of inactive lava lake
September 27, 2021

HVO field crews—equipped with specialized safety gear—conduct station maintenance, collect water samples, and monitor for new changes from within the closed area of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park with NPS permission.

Color plots and photographs showing Ambae eruption and impacts
September 23, 2021

The Pacific is home to dozens of active volcanic systems including the massive Hawaiian shield volcanoes Kīlauea and Mauna Loa. Most basaltic shield volcanoes in the Pacific are related to the hotspots that created the Hawaiian Islands and many of the Polynesian and Micronesian island chains.

Aerial of lava channel
September 16, 2021

Most residents of the Island of Hawaiʻi live on one of four potentially active volcanoes and probably have wondered about the threat of lava flows at one time or another. Interestingly, determining future threats relies on knowledge of the past. The long-term likelihood of an area being invaded by lava in the future, is estimated in two different ways based on the history of lava flow activity.

HVO scientists walk transects along the down-dropped portion of Kīlauea caldera floor
September 9, 2021

Large quantities of volcanic gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), are released into the atmosphere during volcanic eruptions. But even between eruptions, smaller amounts of the same gases continue to escape and can provide important clues about the current state of the volcano and the underlying magma.

On August 31, the water level in Keller Well was measured at approximately 514.12 m (1686.75 ft) below the ground surface
September 7, 2021

HVO field crews—equipped with specialized safety gear—conduct station maintenance, collect water samples, and monitor for new changes from within the closed area of Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park with NPS permission.

24 hour webcam gif south of Kilauea caldera
September 2, 2021

A new USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory webcam provides views to the south of Kīlauea caldera in the area of the August 2021 intrusion. Near-live webcam views and a 24-hour animated GIF are available here: [KOcam] - South of Kīlauea caldera towards 1982 flow (usgs.gov)

Time-series plots of earthquake hourly counts in Kīlauea summit and tilt at the Sandhill station, southwest of Kīlauea’s caldera
September 2, 2021

We know that when a volcano erupts, molten red rock makes it to the surface, while during an intrusion it doesn’t. The difference between the two processes, if we depend on seismicity (earth shaking) or deformation (changes in ground surface) instrumentation, is not obvious. The events during the start of either are identical.  But we can’t be certain that an intrusion will lead to an eruption.

A temporary GPS site set up south of Kīlauea’s summit caldera to measure ground motion during the intrusion last week
August 31, 2021

HVO scientists deploy temporary Global Positioning System (GPS) sites to collect data from the intrusion southwest of Kīlauea caldera.

USGS science for a changing world
August 30, 2021

Ground deformation in Kīlauea’s south summit region continues, though at a lower rate than what has been seen in earlier intrusive pulses over the past week. Current earthquake activity remains low compared to the earlier pulses of this intrusive activity. The East Rift Zone remains quiet. 

USGS science for a changing world
August 29, 2021

Ground deformation in Kīlauea’s south summit region continues, though at a rate slightly lower than the rates seen in the first intrusive pulse spanning August 23-25. In contrast, current earthquake activity remains low compared to the earlier pulses of this intrusive activity. The East Rift Zone remains quiet. 

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