Unified Interior Regions

Hawaii

The Pacific Region has nine USGS Science Centers in California, Nevada, and Hawaii. The Regional Office, headquartered in Sacramento, provides Center oversight and support, facilitates internal and external collaborations, and works to further USGS strategic science directions.

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Filter Total Items: 88
Date published: January 1, 2016

Digital image mosaics of the nearshore coastal waters of selected areas on the island of O'ahu generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

This portion of the data release contains digital image mosaics along the southeast coast of O'ahu. Digital mosaics at 1-foot (0.3048-meter) resolution, including the areas of Waikiki, Diamond Head, Wai'alae, Maunalua Bay, and Portlock, were generated from 1:10K aerial photography and are presented in one zip file (oahu_1ft.zip) that also contains lower-resolution 'bro

Date published: January 1, 2016

Digital image mosaics of the nearshore coastal waters of Kukio on the Island of Hawai'i generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

This portion of the data release contains an image mosaic of the Kukio area on the west 'Kona' coast of the island of Hawai'i. This image mosaic was generated using digitized 1:24K natural color photographs collected in June 2000 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS). Two versions of the image mosaic are available--one with and

Date published: January 1, 2016

Digital image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters from Waikiki to Portlock on the island of O'ahu generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

This portion of the data release contains a digital image mosaic from Waikiki to Portlock along the southeast coast of O'ahu. Digital mosaics at 1-foot (0.3048-meter) resolution, including the areas of Waikiki, Diamond Head, Wai'alae, Maunalua Bay, and Portlock, were generated from 1:10K aerial photography. These five image mosaics were then combined into one larger mosaic a

Date published: January 1, 2016

Physics-based numerical circulation model outputs of ocean surface circulation during the 2010-2013 summer coral-spawning seasons in Maui Nui, Hawaii, USA

Ocean surface current results from a physics-based, 3-dimensional coupled ocean-atmosphere numerical model were generated to understand coral larval dispersal patterns in Maui Nui, Hawaii, USA. The model was used to simulate coral larval dispersal patterns from a number of existing State-managed reefs and large tracks of reefs with high coral coverage that might be good candidates for marin...

Date published: January 1, 2016

Digital image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters of Haleolono Point on the island of Moloka'i generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

This portion of the data release contains a digital image mosaic with 1 meter-per-pixel resolution of the Haleolono Point area on the south coast of Moloka'i. This image mosaic was generated using digitized 1:35K natural color photographs collected in September 1993 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS). Also available is a lower-re

Date published: January 1, 2016

Digital image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters of La'au Point on the island of Moloka'i generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

This portion of the data release contains a digital image mosaic with 1 meter-per-pixel resolution of the La'au Point area on the south coast of Moloka'i. This image mosaic was generated using digitized 1:35K natural color photographs collected in September 1993 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS). Also available is a lower-reso

Date published: January 1, 2016

Digital image mosaics of the nearshore coastal waters of Kawaihae on the Island of Hawai'i generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

This portion of the data release contains an image mosaic of the Kawaihae area on the west 'Kona' coast of the island of Hawai'i. This image mosaic was generated using digitized 1:24K natural color photographs collected in June 2000 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS). Two versions of the image mosaic are available--one with a

Date published: January 1, 2016

Digital image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters of Pala'au on the island of Moloka'i generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

This portion of the data release contains a digital image mosaic with 1 meter-per-pixel resolution of the Pala'au area on the south coast of Moloka'i. This image mosaic was generated using digitized 1:35K natural color photographs collected in September 1993 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS). Also available is a lower-resoluti

Date published: January 1, 2016

Digital image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters of Puko'o on the island of Moloka'i generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

This portion of the data release contains a digital image mosaic with 1 meter-per-pixel resolution of the Puko'o area on the south coast of Moloka'i. This image mosaic was generated using digitized 1:35K natural color photographs collected in September 1993 by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service (NOS). Also available is a lower-resolutio

Date published: January 1, 2016

Digital image mosaics of the nearshore coastal waters of Kalaeloa on the island of Moloka'i generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

This portion of the data release contains a digital image mosaic with 1.0 foot-per-pixel resolution of the Kalaeloa area on the south coast of Moloka'i. This image mosaic was generated using digitized 1:10K natural color photographs collected in January 2000 by Air Survey Hawai'i, Inc. for the U.S. Geological Survey. Also available is a lower-resolution 'browse' graphic of the image m

Date published: January 1, 2016

Shaded-relief image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters from Waikiki to Portlock on the island of O'ahu generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

This portion of the data release contains a digital image mosaic from Waikiki to Portlock along the southeast coast of O'ahu. Digital mosaics at 1-foot (0.3048-meter) resolution, including the areas of Waikiki, Diamond Head, Wai'alae, Maunalua Bay, and Portlock, were generated from 1:10K aerial photography. These five image mosaics were then combined into one larger mosaic%2

Date published: January 1, 2016

Digital image mosaic of the nearshore coastal waters of Diamond Head on the island of O'ahu generated using aerial photographs and SHOALS airborne lidar bathymetry data

This portion of the data release contains a digital image mosaic with 1.0 foot-per-pixel (0.3048 meter-per-pixel) resolution of the Diamond Head area on the southeast coast of O'ahu. This image mosaic was generated using digitized 1:10K natural color photographs collected by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Ocean Service. Also available is a lower-re

Filter Total Items: 297
Map showing lower East Rift Zone lava flows and fissures
June 8, 2018

Map as of 12:00 p.m. (noon) HST, June 8, 2018

Thermal map of fissure system and lava flows
June 6, 2018

This thermal map shows the fissure system and lava flows as of 12:30 pm on Wednesday, June 6.

Map showing lower East Rift Zone lava flows and fissures
June 6, 2018

Map as of 12:00 p.m. (noon) HST, June 6, 2018.

Thermal map of fissure system and lava flows
June 5, 2018

This thermal map shows the fissure system and lava flows as of 12:30 pm on Tuesday, June 5

Map showing lower East Rift Zone lava flows and fissures
June 5, 2018

Map as of 10:00 a.m. HST, June 5, 2018.

Thermal map of fissure system and lava flows
June 4, 2018

This thermal map shows the fissure system and lava flows as of 12:30 pm on Monday, June 4

Map showing lower East Rift Zone lava flows and fissures
June 4, 2018

Map as of 2:00 p.m. HST, June 4, 2018.

June 3 Thermal map of fissure system and lava flows
June 3, 2018

This thermal map shows the fissure system and lava flows as of 12:30 pm on Sunday, June 3.

Map showing lower East Rift Zone lava flows and fissures
June 3, 2018

Map as of 11:00 a.m. HST, June 3, 2018.

Thermal map of fissure system and lava flows
June 2, 2018

This thermal map shows the fissure system and lava flows as of 6:45 am on Saturday, June 2.

Map showing lower East Rift Zone lava flows and fissures
June 2, 2018

Map as of 1:30 p.m. HST, June 2, 2018.

Thermal map of fissure system and lava flows
June 1, 2018

This thermal map shows the fissure system and lava flows as of 5:30 pm on Friday, June 1.

Filter Total Items: 111
Publication Thumbnail
Year Published: 2006

Rainfall, Streamflow, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, Halawa Stream Drainage Basin, Oahu, Hawaii, July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006

Storm runoff water-quality samples were collected as part of the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program. This program is designed to assess the effects of highway runoff and urban runoff on Halawa Stream. For this program, rainfall data were collected at two stations, continuous discharge data at one station,...

Presley, Todd K.; Jamison, Marcael T.J.; Young-Smith, Stacie T. M.
Rainfall, Streamflow, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, Halawa Stream Drainage Basin, Oahu, Hawaii, July 1, 2005 to June 30, 2006; 2006; OFR; 2006-1223; Presley, Todd K.; Jamison, Marcael T. J.; Young-Smith, Stacie T. M.

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Year Published: 2005

Water Resources Data: Hawaii and Other Pacific Areas, Water Year 2004. Volume 1. Hawaii

Water resources data for the 2004 water year for Hawaii consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and springs; water levels and quality of water wells; and rainfall totals. * Water discharge for 66 gaging stations on streams, springs, and ditches. * Water-quality data for 4 streams, and 1 well. * Water levels for 42...

Shimizu, B.H.; Nishimoto, D.C.; Taogoshi, R.I.; Teeters, P.C.
Water Resources Data: Hawaii and Other Pacific Areas, Water Year 2004. Volume 1. Hawaii; 2005; WDR; HI-04-1; Shimizu, B. H.; Nishimoto, D. C.; Taogoshi, R. I.; Teeters, P. C.

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Year Published: 2005

Effects of Surface-Water Diversions on Habitat Availability for Native Macrofauna, Northeast Maui, Hawaii

Effects of surface-water diversions on habitat availability for native stream fauna (fish, shrimp, and snails) are described for 21 streams in northeast Maui, Hawaii. Five streams (Waikamoi, Honomanu, Wailuanui, Kopiliula, and Hanawi Streams) were chosen as representative streams for intensive study. On each of the five streams, three...

Gingerich, Stephen B.; Wolff, Reuben H.
Effects of Surface-Water Diversions on Habitat Availability for Native Macrofauna, Northeast Maui, Hawaii; 2005; SIR; 2005-5213; Gingerich, Stephen B.; Wolff, Reuben H.

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Year Published: 2005

Rainfall, Streamflow, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, Halawa Stream Drainage Basin, Oahu, Hawaii, July 1, 2004 to June 30, 2005

Storm runoff water-quality samples were collected as part of the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program. This program is designed to assess the effects of highway runoff and urban runoff on Halawa Stream. For this program, rainfall data were collected at two stations, continuous streamflow data at two stations,...

Young, Stacie T.M.; Ball, Marcael T.J.
Rainfall, Streamflow, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, Halawa Stream Drainage Basin, Oahu, Hawaii, July 1, 2004 to June 30, 2005; 2005; OFR; 2005-1280; Young, Stacie T. M.; Ball, Marcael T. J.

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Year Published: 2005

Construction, Geology, and Aquifer Testing of the Maalo Road, Aahoaka Hill, and Upper Eleele Tank Monitor Wells, Kauai, Hawaii

The Maalo Road, Aahoaka Hill, and Upper Eleele Tank monitor wells were constructed using rotary drilling methods between July 1998 and August 2002 as part of a program of exploratory drilling, aquifer testing, and hydrologic analysis on Kauai. Aquifer tests were conducted in the uncased boreholes of the wells. The Maalo Road monitor well in the...

Izuka, Scot K.
Construction, Geology, and Aquifer Testing of the Maalo Road, Aahoaka Hill, and Upper Eleele Tank Monitor Wells, Kauai, Hawaii; 2005; OFR; 2005-1159; Izuka, Scot K.

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Year Published: 2005

Median and Low-Flow Characteristics for Streams under Natural and Diverted Conditions, Northeast Maui, Hawaii

Flow-duration statistics under natural (undiverted) and diverted flow conditions were estimated for gaged and ungaged sites on 21 streams in northeast Maui, Hawaii. The estimates were made using the optimal combination of continuous-record gaging-station data, low-flow measurements, and values determined from regression equations developed as part...

Gingerich, Stephen B.
Median and Low-Flow Characteristics for Streams under Natural and Diverted Conditions, Northeast Maui, Hawaii; 2005; SIR; 2004-5262; Gingerich, Stephen B.

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Year Published: 2005

Water Quality in the Halawa, Haiku, and Kaneohe Drainage Basins Before, During, and After H-3 Highway Construction, Oahu, Hawaii, 1983-1999

Selected water-quality data collected before, during, and after construction of the H-3 Highway at 13 water-quality stations were compared to the State of Hawaii Department of Health water-quality standards to determine the effects of highway construction on the water quality of the affected streams. Highway construction had no effect on the high...

Wong, Michael F.
Water Quality in the Halawa, Haiku, and Kaneohe Drainage Basins Before, During, and After H-3 Highway Construction, Oahu, Hawaii, 1983-1999; 2005; SIR; 2004-5002; Wong, Michael F.

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Year Published: 2004

Water Resources Data: Hawaii and Other Pacific Areas, Water Year 2003. Volume 1. Hawaii

Water resources data for the 2003 water year for Hawaii consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams and springs; water levels and quality of water wells; and rainfall totals. * Water discharge for 70 gaging stations on streams, springs, and ditches. * Discharge data for 97 crest-stage partial-record stations. * Water-...

Teeters, P.C.; Taogoshi, R.I.; Nishimoto, D.C.; Shimizu, B.H.
Water Resources Data: Hawaii and Other Pacific Areas, Water Year 2003. Volume 1. Hawaii; 2004; WDR; HI-03-1; Teeters, P. C.; Taogoshi, R. I.; Nishimoto, D. C.; Shimizu, B. H.

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Year Published: 2004

Trends in Streamflow Characteristics at Long-Term Gaging Stations, Hawaii

The surface-water resources of Hawaii have significant cultural, aesthetic, ecologic, and economic importance. Proper management of the surface-water resources of the State requires an understanding of the long- and short-term variability in streamflow characteristics that may occur. The U.S. Geological Survey maintains a network of stream-gaging...

Oki, Delwyn S.
Trends in Streamflow Characteristics at Long-Term Gaging Stations, Hawaii; 2004; SIR; 2004-5080; Oki, Delwyn S.

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Year Published: 2004

Water Quality on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, 1999-2001

This report contains the major findings of a 1999-2001 assessment of water quality on the island of Oahu, Hawaii. It is one of a series of reports by the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program that present major findings in 51 major river basins and aquifer systems across the Nation. In these reports, water quality is discussed in...

Anthony, Stephen S.; Hunt, Charles D.; Brasher, Anne M.D.; Miller, Lisa D.; Tomlinson, Michael S.
Water Quality on the Island of Oahu, Hawaii, 1999-2001; 2004; CIR; 1239; Anthony, Stephen S.; Hunt, Charles D., Jr.; Brasher, Anne M. D.; Miller, Lisa D.; Tomlinson, Michael S.

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Year Published: 2004

Rainfall, Streamflow, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, Halawa Stream Drainage Basin, Oahu, Hawaii, July 1, 2003 to June 30, 2004

Storm runoff water-quality samples were collected as part of the State of Hawaii Department of Transportation Stormwater Monitoring Program. This program is designed to assess the effects of highway runoff and urban runoff on Halawa Stream. For this program, rainfall data were collected at two sites, continuous streamflow data at three sites, and...

Young, Stacie T.M.; Ball, Marcael T.J.
Rainfall, Streamflow, and Water-Quality Data During Stormwater Monitoring, Halawa Stream Drainage Basin, Oahu, Hawaii, July 1, 2003 to June 30, 2004; 2004; OFR; 2004-1275; Young, Stacie T. M.; Ball, Marcael T. J.

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Year Published: 2004

Trends in Streamflow Characteristics in Hawaii, 1913-2002

The surface-water resources of Hawaii have significant cultural, aesthetic, ecologic, and economic importance. In Hawaii, surface-water resources are developed for both offstream uses (for example, drinking water, agriculture, and industrial uses) and instream uses (for example, maintenance of habitat and ecosystems, recreational activities,...

Oki, Delwyn S.
Trends in Streamflow Characteristics in Hawaii, 1913-2002; 2004; FS; 2004-3104; Oki, Delwyn S.

Filter Total Items: 1,576
September 3, 2018

Low-Level Spatter on New Pad of Lava

During an overflight of fissure 8 this morning, HVO geologists observed low-level spattering on the new pad of lava within the cone. Slow-moving lava had just barely entered the spillway, but was not advancing down the channel.

August 31, 2018

Time Series of Kīlauea Volcano's Lower East Rift Zone Lava-Flow Maps

During Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) eruption, lava-flow maps were generated on a near-daily basis and published on the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory webpage. For the first week of the 2018 LERZ eruption, lava flows proved difficult to map, as they stayed close to the fissures in Leilani Estates, where vegetation obscured aerial views of their margins. Later

August 30, 2018

Kīlauea Volcano's Summit

The Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) team circumnavigates the crater rim at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, collecting data for digital elevation models that document summit changes. The volume change, from early May 2018 to present, is over 825 million cubic meters (1 billion cubic yards). The vertical collapse of the crater floor is more than 500 m (1600 ft). Limited UAS

August 30, 2018

PubTalk 8/2018 — What on Earth is going on at Kilauea Volcano?

Title: What on Earth is going on at Kilauea Volcano?

  • First significant summit explosions in nearly a century
  • Largest summit collapse volume since at least 1800
  • Voluminous fissure eruptions feeding channelized lava flow
  • Unparalleled new opportunities for understanding the volcanic system
Before and after views of a water fall.  First shows light flow of water over the falls, the second shows heavy flow.
August 23, 2018

Impact of Hurricane Lane on Wailuku River

Two views from the Rainbow Falls overlook, downstream of the Wailuku River streamgage near Hilo, Hawaii. The image on the left shows a typical base flow of about 35 cubic feet per second (cfs). The image on the right shows the early impact of Hurricane Lane with a flow of about 26,000 cfs taken at 8:35 a.m. HST, August 23, 2018. This U.S. Geological Survey streamgage has

...
August 21, 2018

Kīlauea Volcano's Lower East Rift Zone

An Unmanned Aircraft Systems overflight of fissure 8 on August 21, 2018, showed no incandescence within the cinder cone. Minor amounts of gases, primarily steam, rose from the north wall of the cinder cone and from areas along the lower East Rift Zone. The interior walls of the fissure 8 cone and lava channel are slumping downward and inward. The cinder cone was about 50 m

August 20, 2018

Changes Over Time at Kīlauea (April - August 2018)

Changes at the summit of Kīlauea between April 14 and August 20, 2018, were captured by a USGS–Hawaiian Volcano Observatory camera. This time-lapse series includes roughly one image per day. The lava lake within Halema‘uma‘u is visible in April, with overflows onto the caldera floor on April 23. The lava lake drains in early May, followed by explosive activity over the

August 17, 2018

View Into Fissure 8 Cinder Cone

The Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) team assessed conditions at the fissure 8 cone and upper lava channel on August 17, 2018. At the time of the flight, the lava pond within the cone had crusted over with no observed incandescence. The reddish-brown rock inside the cone is the result of oxidation; the interaction of heated rock and gases causes black basaltic cinders to

August 16, 2018

3D Model of Fissure 8 Cone

This 3-dimensional computer model shows the structure of the fissure 8 cone on Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone. The model was created from thermal images acquired during a helicopter overflight on August 15, 2018. The cone is currently about 30 m (100 ft) tall with a broad base. The bright white area within the cone is a small pond of lava, now largely crusted over

August 9, 2018

Lava Entering Ocean Near Isaac Hale Beach Park

Lava continues to enter the ocean near the Isaac Hale Beach Park on Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone. Although lava output from fissure 8 remains low, the ocean entry was still active during HVO's helicopter overflight on August 9, 2018. Numerous small streams of lava were oozing into the ocean near Ahalanui, creating weak plumes of laze. The southern flow margin

New outcrops make good geology
August 6, 2018

New outcrops make good geology

This aerial view of the western part of Kīlauea Volcano's caldera was taken on August 6, 2018. The down-dropped block is faulted about 120 m (400 feet) below the caldera floor. Many 19th-century lava flows are exposed in the fault scarps. Halema‘uma‘u (not visible) is to the left of this photo.

August 6, 2018

Overflight of Kīlauea Summit

Between mid-May and early August, 2018, the depth of Halema‘uma‘u more than tripled and its diameter more than doubled as magma from Kīlauea's shallow summit reservoir moved into the lower East Rift Zone. Evidence of subsidence is visible in this video, taken during an early morning helicopter overflight on August 6, 2018. Cracks and down-dropped blocks of the caldera 

Filter Total Items: 1,983
What is next for Kīlauea Volcano
November 29, 2018

This is, without a doubt, the most intellectually exciting time to be a volcanologist at the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory. The current inactivity at Kīlauea has so many possible outcomes that it is a real challenge to figure out what might happen next. And intellectual challenges are stimulating and exciting.

Sulfur dioxide and hydrogen sulfide gases
November 21, 2018

In this season of giving thanks, Island of Hawai‘i residents and visitors can be thankful for the return of good air quality, generally free of volcanic air pollution.

earthquakes that occurred beneath the island
November 15, 2018

November 2018. Has it already been six months since lava began flowing through Hawai‘i County's lower Puna District? Has it only been three months since activity at fissure 8 ended rather abruptly?

Kīlauea Volcano showing the main collapse area
November 8, 2018

The prolonged yet dramatic partial collapse of Kīlauea caldera this past summer was the first to be observed in detail and the largest measured by subsidence volume of more than a dozen summit collapses in the past 200 years. The earliest known collapses (1823, 1832, and 1840) were large in subsidence volume but the process was not recorded by witnesses.

map of Kīlauea Volcano's lower East Rift Zone
November 1, 2018

During Kīlauea Volcano's recent lower East Rift Zone (LERZ) eruption, lava-flow maps were a staple of the public outreach effort by the USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO).

panoramic view, Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park's Crater Rim Drive
October 25, 2018

The 2018 summit collapse and lower East Rift Zone eruption at Kīlauea Volcano were dramatic and, for many Island of Hawai‘i residents, tragic events. As with all eruptive crises, these events offered exceptional opportunities to learn more about how volcanoes work and to answer some "bigger picture" questions.

thumbnail image of cover of Scientific Investigations Report 2018-5140
October 25, 2018

The U.S. Geological Survey assesses active and potentially active volcanoes in the U.S., focusing on history, hazards and the exposure of people, property and infrastructure to harm during an eruption. The findings are in the newly published 2018 Update to the U.S. Geological Survey National Volcanic Threat Assessment.

2018 Volcanic Threat Assessment helps prioritize risk efforts at U.S. volcanoes
October 24, 2018

Since 1980, there have been 120 eruptions and 52 episodes of notable volcanic unrest at 44 U.S. volcanoes.

Kīlauea volcanic ash sample
October 18, 2018

Sulfur dioxide (SO2)-rich emissions have long been a feature of Kīlauea Volcano's summit activity. However, vigorous volcanic ash production during the 2018 eruption raised new concerns about potential impacts for downwind communities.

inferred rupture area
October 11, 2018

On May 4, 2018, a powerful magnitude-6.9 earthquake on the south flank of Kīlauea Volcano shook the Island of Hawai‘i. It was the largest quake in Hawaii in 43 years. Today, more than five months later, smaller-magnitude earthquakes in the same area are still occurring.

USGS
October 9, 2018

Data Release: Volcanic ash leachate and rainwater chemistry from increased 2018 activity of Kīlauea Volcano, Hawaiʻi

Volcano Craters
October 4, 2018

My 37-year stint with the U.S. Geological Survey—16 years at the Cascades Volcano Observatory (CVO) and 21 at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO)—ends this month.