Unified Interior Regions

South Dakota

Surface water and groundwater provide important water supplies in South Dakota. Major rivers include the Big Sioux, James, Cheyenne, and Missouri Rivers. Key aquifers include the Dakota, Madison, Minnelusa, and Big Sioux aquifers. The Dakota Water Science Center has many studies that focus on these resources as well various other national and international studies. 

Link to Science Center

States L2 Landing Page Tabs

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Image: Spring above Rhoads Fork, SD
May 24, 2001

Spring above Rhoads Fork, SD

Headwater springflow is common in the Limestone Pateau area in the Black Hills of western South Dakota. Most headwater springs in the Black Hills, like this one contributing to Rhoads Fork, generally occur near the base of the Madison Limestone along the eastern edge of the Limestone Plateau area.

Image: Mt. Coolidge Area, Custer State Park, SD, 2001
May 24, 2001

Mt. Coolidge Area, Custer State Park, SD, 2001

Photograph taken in 2001 of Mt. Coolidge area in Black Hills of western South Dakota. The area was burned by the Galena Fire in 1988, which burned approximately 17,000 acres in Custer State Park.

Image: Bear Butte Creek, South Dakota
May 24, 2001

Bear Butte Creek, South Dakota

Bear Butte Creek in northern Black Hills near Deadwood, SD.

Image: Deadwood Formation in Deadwood, SD
May 24, 2001

Deadwood Formation in Deadwood, SD

Towering cliff of the Deadwood Formation in Deadwood, SD. The Deadwood Formation consists mostly of sandstone and shale.

Image: Grace Coolidge Creek, SD
May 24, 2001

Grace Coolidge Creek, SD

Grace Collidge Creek above loss zone in southern Black Hills of South Dakota.

Image: Gypsum Layer in Spearfish Formation, SD
May 24, 2001

Gypsum Layer in Spearfish Formation, SD

Spearfish Formation near Spearfish, SD. The Spearfish Formation is a red, silty shale with interbedded red sandstone and siltstone. The formation contains massive gypsum deposits, which is the white layer in the photograph.

Image: Iron Bog near Rochford, SD
May 24, 2001

Iron Bog near Rochford, SD

Naturally occuring bog-iron area near Rochford, SD, in the Black Hills of western South Dakota.

Image: Aftermath of 2000 Jasper Fire, Jewel Cave, SD
May 24, 2001

Aftermath of 2000 Jasper Fire, Jewel Cave, SD

Photograph taken in 2001 of an area burned by the Jasper Fire that started on August 24, 2000, just west of Jewel Cave in the southern Black Hills of South Dakota. A total of about 84,000 acres was burned by the Jasper Fire.

Image: Madison Limestone in Spearfish Canyon, SD
May 24, 2001

Madison Limestone in Spearfish Canyon, SD

Outcrop of the Madison Limestone in Spearfish Canyon in the northern Black Hills of South Dakota. The Madison Limestone is a massive, gray to buff limestone with some dolomite.

Image: Minnelusa Formation at Ranch A near Beulah, WY
May 24, 2001

Minnelusa Formation at Ranch A near Beulah, WY

Outcrop of the Minneslua Formation at Ranch A near Beulah, Wyoming. The Minnelusa Formation consists mostly of yellow to red sandstone, limestone, dolomite, and shale.

Image: Precipitation Gage near Custer, SD
August 27, 2000

Precipitation Gage near Custer, SD

Precipitation gage 434534103290500, Mt. Coolidge near Custer, SD