Unified Interior Regions

Region 10: California-Great Basin

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The California-Great Basin includes California, Nevada, and part of Oregon. The Regional Office, headquartered in Sacramento, provides Center oversight and support, facilitates internal and external collaborations, and works to further USGS strategic science directions. Our scientists do a broad array of research and technical assistance throughout the U.S. and across the globe.

News

Date published: November 15, 2021

The Role of Sediment in Coastal Resiliency

The delivery and deposition of sediment along coastlines is essential to building barriers such as sandbars, dunes and marshes that protect coastal communities from storms and sea-level rise.

Date published: October 27, 2021

Media Alert: Airplane to Make Low-Level Flights Over Western and Northern Nevada and Part of Eastern California

Residents and visitors may witness a low-flying aircraft over western Nevada and part of eastern California starting around November 1, 2021 and continuing into the summer of 2022.

Date published: October 25, 2021

How Wildfires Threaten Water Supplies By Unleashing Sediment

In the year after the Carr Fire in northern California, USGS researchers found that greater-than-average precipitation moved large sediment loads through watersheds—in some cases, orders of magnitude more sediment compared to pre-fire amounts. 

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Date published: October 25, 2021
Status: Active

Landscape Response to Disturbance

This project characterizes and measures sediment-related effects of landscape disturbances (such as major storms, drought, or wildfire) and river management. We focus primarily on the U.S. west coast, and our work relates to natural hazards and resource management.

Contacts: Amy East
Date published: October 15, 2021
Status: Active

Sediment transport between estuarine habitats in San Francisco Bay

We investigate mechanisms of sediment transport, resuspension dynamics in shoals, wave evolution in the shallows, wave attenuation in marshes, and transport of sediment between mudflats and marshes. We produce data sets for calibration of and comparison with sediment transport models, including wave parameters, suspended sediment concentration, and sediment flux. This research is part of the...

Contacts: Jessie Lacy
Date published: October 15, 2021
Status: Active

Sediment Transport in Coastal Environments

Our research goals are to provide the scientific information, knowledge, and tools required to ensure that decisions about land and resource use, management practices, and future development in the coastal zone and adjacent watersheds can be evaluated with a complete understanding of the probable effects on coastal ecosystems and communities, and a full assessment of their vulnerability to...

Date published: October 15, 2021
Status: Active

U.S. West Coast and Alaska Marine Geohazards

Marine geohazards are sudden and extreme events beneath the ocean that threaten coastal populations. Such underwater hazards include earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, and tsunamis.

Devastating earthquakes in Japan (2011) and Chile (2010) that spawned pan-oceanic tsunamis sent a sobering reminder that U.S. coastlines are also vulnerable to natural disasters that originate in...

Date published: October 15, 2021
Status: Active

Drag and sediment transport: conditions at the bottom boundary

Research on bed sediment grain size, bedform morphology, vegetation characteristics, and sediment resuspension and transport is part of the Sediment Transport in Coastal Environments project.

Contacts: Jessie Lacy
Date published: October 4, 2021
Status: Active

Remote Sensing Coastal Change

We use remote-sensing technologies—such as aerial photography, satellite imagery, structure-from-motion (SfM) photogrammetry, and lidar (laser-based surveying)—to measure coastal change along U.S. shorelines.

Date published: September 30, 2021
Status: Active

Using Video Imagery to Study Coastal Change: Santa Cruz Beaches

Two video cameras atop the Dream Inn hotel in Santa Cruz, California, overlook the coast in northern Monterey Bay. One camera looks eastward over Santa Cruz Main Beach and boardwalk, while the other looks southward over Cowells Beach.

Date published: September 30, 2021
Status: Active

Using Video Imagery to Study Coastal Change: Sunset State Beach

Two video cameras overlook the coast at Sunset State Beach in Watsonville, California. Camera 1 looks northwest while Camera 2 looks north. The cameras are part of the Remote Sensing Coastal Change project.

Date published: September 2, 2021
Status: Active

Ecosystems: EXPRESS

The continental shelf and slope offshore California, Oregon, and Washington are home to deep-sea corals, chemosynthetic communities, and other sensitive habitats that could be impacted by the development of energy and mineral resources. The EXPRESS (Expanding Pacific Research and Exploration of Submerged Systems) campaign will map and characterize these special areas to help guide ocean...

Date published: September 1, 2021
Status: Active

Coastal Climate Impacts

The impacts of climate change and sea-level rise around the Pacific and Arctic Oceans can vary tremendously. Thus far the vast majority of national and international impact assessments and models of coastal climate change have focused on low-relief coastlines that are not near seismically active zones. Furthermore, the degree to which extreme waves and wind will add further stress to coastal...

Date published: September 1, 2021
Status: Active

Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS)

The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes detailed predictions of storm-induced coastal flooding, erosion, and cliff failures over large geographic scales. CoSMoS was developed for hindcast studies, operational applications and future climate scenarios to provide emergency responders and coastal planners with critical storm-hazards information that can be used to increase public safety...

Date published: July 30, 2021
Status: Active

Dynamic coastlines along the western U.S.

The west coast of the United States is extremely complex and changeable because of tectonic activity, mountain building, and land subsidence. These active environments pose a major challenge for accurately assessing climate change impacts, since models were historically developed for more passive sandy coasts.

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Date published: October 16, 2021

Donated ROV vibracore and sampling data collected during Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute cruises in 2019 offshore of south-central California

This dataset includes photographs of vibracores that were collected by the Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute in February 2019 and November 2019 aboard R/V Western Flyer using the remotely operated vehicle Doc Ricketts. The collection of these cores was funded entirely by MBARI, and the cores have been donated to the USGS. The cores were collected in collaboration with...

Date published: October 16, 2021

Piston and gravity core data collected during USGS cruise 2019-642-FA offshore of south-central California in support of the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management California Deepwater Investigations and Groundtruthing alternative energy project, Sept. 2019

This data release includes photographs, multi-sensor core logger, porewater analyses, and location and depth data from piston and gravity cores collected off the south-central California coast. This dataset is one of several collected as part of the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management-funded California Deepwater Investigations and Groundtruthing project. The purpose of the study is to assess ...

Date published: October 15, 2021

Hydrodynamic, sediment transport, and sediment flocculation data from south San Francisco Bay, California, summer 2020

USGS collected hydrodynamic and suspended sediment flocculation data at channel and shallow water sites in south San Francisco Bay in July 2020. The data were used to determine water column stratification, turbulence profiles, and floc size evolution. The goal of this project was to bound the controls on floc size and floc settling velocity to improve estimates of sediment fluxes and consider...

Date published: October 15, 2021

Geophysical properties, geochronologic, and geochemical data of sediment cores collected from San Pablo Bay, California, October 17-20, 2016

P-wave velocity, gamma ray density, and magnetic susceptibility, radiocarbon, excess Lead-210, and Cesium-137, and organic carbon content and 60 element contents are reported for select vibracores collected aboard S/V Retriever October 17-20, 2016 in San Pablo Bay, California. Geophysical properties were measured with a Geotek Multi-Sensor Core Logger. Radiocarbon was measured by...

Date published: September 30, 2021

Overlapping lakebed images and associated GNSS locations acquired near Dollar Point, Lake Tahoe, CA, March 2021

We collected underwater images using a recently developed towed-surface vehicle with multiple downward-looking underwater cameras. The system is named the Structure-from-Motion (SfM) Quantitative Underwater Imaging Device with Five Cameras (SQUID-5). Images were collected March 10th and 11th of 2021 by towing the SQUID-5 at a speed of approximately 3.0 knots along a series of adjacent survey...

Date published: August 3, 2021

Invertebrate remains from the Dominican University of California archaeological site MRN-CA-254, Marin County, California

This data release indicates faunal presence or absence of shelly artifacts (invertebrate remains) from the Dominican University of California archaeological site MRN-CA-254, Marin County, California.

Date published: May 25, 2021

Modeled extreme total water levels along the U.S. west coast

This dataset contains information on the probabilities of storm-induced erosion (collision, inundation and overwash) for each 100-meter (m) section of the United States Pacific coast for return period storm scenarios. The analysis is based on a storm-impact scaling model that uses observations of beach morphology combined with sophisticated hydrodynamic models to predict how the coast will...

Date published: December 14, 2020

Model archive for analysis of long-term annual yields of highway and urban runoff in selected areas of California with the Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model (SELDM)

This model archive describes approaches used by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with CalTrans for assessing long-term annual yields of highway and urban runoff in selected areas of California with version 1.1.0 of the Stochastic Empirical Loading and Dilution Model (SELDM). 

Date published: August 12, 2020

CTD profiles and discrete water-column measurements collected off California and Oregon during NOAA cruise RL-19-05 (USGS field activity 2019-672-FA) from October to November 2019

Various water column variables, including salinity, dissolved inorganic nutrients, pH, total alkalinity, dissolved inorganic carbon, were measured in samples collected using a Niskin-bottle rosette at selected depths from sites offshore of California and Oregon from October to November 2019 during NOAA cruise RL-19-05 on R/V Reuben Lasker (USGS field activity 2019-672-FA). CTD data were also...

Date published: June 9, 2020

SPARROW Mappers for the 2012 SPARROW Models for the Pacific region

SPARROW mappers are interactive tools that allow users to explore river streamflow and nutrient and sediment loads and yields and the importance of different sources of contaminants in a particular river basin. Data can be visualized using maps and interactive graphs and tables, and rankings can be shown by state, major watershed, hydrologic unit (HUC), and catchment.

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Year Published: 2021

Seven decades of coastal change at Barter Island, Alaska: Exploring the importance of waves and temperature on erosion of coastal permafrost bluffs

Observational data of coastal change over much of the Arctic are limited largely due to its immensity, remoteness, harsh environment, and restricted periods of sunlight and ice-free conditions. Barter Island, Alaska, is one of the few locations where an extensive, observational dataset exists, which enables a detailed assessment of the trends and...

Gibbs, Ann E.; Erikson, Li H.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Engelstad, Anita C

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Year Published: 2021

Rigorously valuing the coastal hazard risks reduction provided by potential coral reef restoration in Florida and Puerto Rico

The restoration of coastal habitats, particularly coral reefs, can reduce risks by decreasing the exposure of coastal communities to flooding hazards. In the United States, the protective services provided by coral reefs were recently assessed in social and economic terms, with the annual protection provided by U.S. coral reefs off the coasts of...

Storlazzi, Curt D.; Reguero, Borja G.; Cumming, Kristen A.; Cole, Aaron D.; Shope, James B.; Gaido L., Camila; Viehman, T. Shay; Nickel, Barry A.; Beck, Michael W.
Storlazzi, C.D., Reguero, B.G., Cumming, K.A., Cole, A.D., Shope, J.B., Gaido L., C., Viehman, T.S., Nickel, B.A., and Beck, M.W., 2021, Rigorously valuing the coastal hazard risks reduction provided by potential coral reef restoration in Florida and Puerto Rico: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2021–1054, 35 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20211054.

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Year Published: 2021

Rigorously valuing the impact of projected coral reef degradation on coastal hazard risk in Florida

The degradation of coastal habitats, particularly coral reefs, raises risks by increasing the exposure of coastal communities to flooding hazards. In the United States, the physical protective services provided by coral reefs were recently assessed, in social and economic terms, with the annual protection provided by U.S. coral reefs off the coast...

Storlazzi, Curt D.; Reguero, Borja G.; Yates, Kimberly K.; Cumming, Kristen A.; Cole, Aaron D.; Shope, James B.; Gaido L., Camila; Zawada, David G.; Arsenault, Stephanie R.; Fehr, Zachery W.; Nickel, Barry A.; Beck, Michael W.
Storlazzi, C.D., Reguero, B.G., Yates, K.K., Cumming, K.A., Cole, A.D., Shope, J.B., Gaido L., C., Zawada, D.G., Arsenault, S.R., Fehr, Z.W., Nickel, B.A., and Beck, M.W., 2021, Rigorously valuing the impact of projected coral reef degradation on coastal hazard risk in Florida: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2021–1055, 27 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20211055.

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Year Published: 2021

Rigorously valuing the impact of Hurricanes Irma and Maria on coastal hazard risks in Florida and Puerto Rico

The degradation of coastal habitats, particularly coral reefs, raises risks by increasing the exposure of coastal communities to flooding hazards. In the United States, the physical protective services provided by coral reefs were recently assessed in social and economic terms, with the annual protection provided by U.S. coral reefs off the coasts...

Storlazzi, Curt D.; Reguero, Borja G.; Viehman, T. Shay; Cumming, Kristen A.; Cole, Aaron D.; Shope, James B.; Groves, Sarah H.; Gaido L., Camila; Nickel, Barry A.; Beck, Michael W.
Storlazzi, C.D., Reguero, B.G., Viehman, T.S., Cumming, K.A., Cole, A.D., Shope, J.B., Groves, S.H., Gaido L., C., Nickel, B.A., and Beck, M.W., 2021, Rigorously valuing the impact of Hurricanes Irma and Maria on coastal hazard risks in Florida and Puerto Rico: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2021–1056, 29 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20211056.

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Year Published: 2021

Watershed sediment yield following the 2018 Carr Fire, Whiskeytown National Recreation Area, northern California

Wildfire risk has increased in recent decades over many regions, due to warming climate and other factors. Increased sediment export from recently burned landscapes can jeopardize downstream infrastructure and water resources, but physical landscape response to fire has not been quantified for some at-risk areas, including much of northern...

East, Amy E.; Logan, Joshua B.; Dartnell, Peter; Lieber-Kotz, Oren; Cavagnaro, David B.; McCoy, Scott W.; Lindsay, Donald N.

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Year Published: 2021

Labeling poststorm coastal imagery for machine learning: Measurement of interrater agreement

Classifying images using supervised machine learning (ML) relies on labeled training data—classes or text descriptions, for example, associated with each image. Data-driven models are only as good as the data used for training, and this points to the importance of high-quality labeled data for developing a ML model that has predictive skill....

Goldstein, Evan B.; Buscombe, Daniel D.; Lazarus, Eli D.; Mohanty, Somya; Rafique, Shah N.; Anarde, K A; Ashton, Andrew D; Beuzen, Tomas; Castagno, Katherine A.; Cohn, Nicholas; Conlin, Matthew P.; Ellenson, Ashley; Gillen, Megan; Hovenga, Paige A.; Over, Jin-Si R.; Palermo, Rose V.; Ratlif, Katherine; Reeves, Ian R; Sanborn, Lily H.; Straub, Jessamin A.; Taylor, Luke A.; Wallace, Elizabeth J.; Warrick, Jonathan; Wernette, Phillipe Alan; Williams, Hannah E

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Year Published: 2021

Flooding duration and volume more important than peak discharge in explaining 18 years of gravel–cobble river change

Floods play a critical role in geomorphic change, but whether peak magnitude, duration, volume, or frequency determines the resulting magnitude of erosion and deposition is a question often proposed in geomorphic effectiveness studies. This study investigated that question using digital elevation model differencing to compare and contrast three...

Gervasi, Arielle; Pasternack, Gregory; East, Amy E.

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Year Published: 2021

Rebounds, regresses, and recovery: A 15-year study of the coral reef community at Pila‘a, Kaua‘i after decades of natural and anthropogenic stress events

Pila‘a reef on the north shore of Kaua‘i, Hawai‘i was subjected to a major flood event in 2001 that deposited extensive sediment on the reef flat, resulting in high coral mortality. To document potential recovery, this study replicated benthic and sediment surveys conducted immediately following the event and 15 years later. Coral cores were...

Rodgers, Ku'ulei S.; Richards Dona, A.; Stender, Y. O.; Tsang, A. O.; Han, J. H. J.; Weible, Rebecca; Prouty, Nancy G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Graham, Andrew M.

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Year Published: 2021

Assessment of barrier island morphological change in northern Alaska

Arctic barriers islands are highly dynamic features influenced by a variety of oceanographic, geologic, and environmental factors. Many Alaskan barrier islands and spits serve as habitat and protection for native species, as well as shelter the coast from waves and storms that cause flooding and degradation of coastal villages. This study...

Hamilton, Anna I.; Gibbs, Ann E.; Erikson, Li H.; Engelstad, Anita C.
Hamilton, A.I., Gibbs, A.E., Erikson, L.H., and Engelstad, A.C., 2021, Assessment of barrier island morphological change in northern Alaska: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2021–1074, 28 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20211074.

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Year Published: 2021

Drivers of extreme water levels in a large, urban, high-energy coastal estuary – A case study of the San Francisco Bay

Reliable and long-term hindcast data of water levels are essential in quantifying return period and values of extreme water levels. In order to inform design decisions on a local flood control district level, process-based numerical modeling has proven an essential tool to provide the needed temporal and spatial coverage for different extreme...

Nederhoff, Kees; Saleh, Rohin; Tehranirad, Babak; Herdman, Liv M.; Erikson, Li H.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Van der Wegen, Mick

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Year Published: 2021

Cohesive sediment modeling in a shallow estuary: Model and environmental implications of sediment parameter variation

Numerical models of sediment transport in estuarine systems rely on parameter values that are often poorly constrained and can vary on timescales relevant to model processes. The selection of parameter values can affect the accuracy of model predictions, while environmental variation of these parameters can impact the temporal and spatial ranges...

Allen, Rachel; Lacy, Jessica R.; Stevens, Andrew W.

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Year Published: 2021

Miocene phosphatization of rocks from the summit of Rio Grande Rise, Southwest Atlantic Ocean

Marine phosphorites are an important part of the oceanic phosphorus cycle and are related to the effects of long-term global climate changes. We use petrography, mineralogy, rare earth elements contents, and 87Sr/86Sr-determined carbonate fluorapatite (CFA) and calcite ages to investigate the paragenesis and history of phosphatization of...

Benites, Mariana; Hein, James R.; Mizell, Kira; Jovane, Luigi

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September 1, 2021

Image of the Week - Caldor Fire Expands Toward Lake Tahoe

The Caldor fire in California started on August 14, 2021 and quickly spread in high winds.

The fire continues to expand toward the Lake Tahoe area as residents evacuate.

This image was captured on August 21, the 8th day.

Landsat 8's near infrared and shortwave infrared bands reveal active fire, burn scars, and smoke.

Landsat's thermal and

August 20, 2021

Image of the Week - Dixie Fire Ravages Northern California

The Dixie Fire has become the largest single fire in California's recorded history. State fire officials don't list it at the top, however. The record is held by the massive August Complex fire of 2020 which burned over one million acres. The term "complex" is used when multiple fires in the same area ignite separately. Designating the fires as a complex allows them to be

August 10, 2021

Image of the Week - Dry Spell Depletes Northern California Reservoirs

A prolonged dry spell has sparked woes over water availability and wildfire in the western United States.

This stretch of northern California is heavily reliant on man-made reservoirs. The recent history of a single Landsat scene can serve to illustrate the ripple effects of those severely parched conditions. Water levels have dropped in Folsom Lake, Indian Valley

July 25, 2021

Ferromanganese Nodules—2021 North Atlantic Stepping Stones Exped. (AD)

During a recent dive on the New England Seamount chain off the North Atlantic coast, researchers aboard the NOAA Ocean Exploration Expedition, North Atlantic Stepping Stones, discovered a marine geological feature known as a ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) nodule field in the saddle between two peaks of Gosnold Seamount. These seamount-hosted nodules were an exciting find, since Fe

July 13, 2021

NOAA-USGS Stepping Stones 2021 Expedition - AD

Join USGS researchers Jason Chaytor and Kira Mizell as they virtually participate in a NOAA Ocean Exploration expedition to the depths of the North Atlantic.

The 2021 North Atlantic Stepping Stones: New England and Corner Rise Seamounts expedition runs from June 30 to July 29. At-sea and shore-based science teams will study deep-water habitats in the high seas,

Map of U.S. mainland showing temperate, transitional and tropical temperature patterns
March 16, 2021

U.S. regions in the tropical-to-temperate transition

A map showing North America's tropical-to-temperate transition zone. Red, orange, and yellow depict the more tropical zones, and blues depict the more temperate zones, based on to the coldest recorded temperature for each area between 1980 and 2009. Photos show some cold-sensitive plants and animals with northern range limits governed by winter cold temperature extremes.

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A school of snook, large subtropical game fish, in a Florida spring
March 15, 2021

Subtropical snook gather at a warm Florida springhead in winter

 Winter temperature extremes control the distributions of subtropical fishes. Common snook (Centropomus undecimalis), aggregate at a spring in northern Florida during winter. Snook are warm saltwater game fish, common in Florida, that have been moving further northward as extreme cold spells become less frequent and less intense.

 

A woman stands in a rut eroded by water, on a very steep hill surrounded by burned trees.
February 28, 2021

Burned, denuded hillside in the CZU Lightning Complex

The USGS landslide team monitors and continues to update the hazard map models based on data collected in burn areas. This information improves future models and provides better hazard assessments used by officials for emergency response and decision making. Many of the steep hillsides burned and denuded in California fires repel water rather than soak it in. This

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wind turbines in a dessert landscape
October 27, 2020

Wind turbines in California

Wind turbines at the San Gorgonio Pass Wind Resource Area north of Palm Springs in California.

Home mostly covered by a debris flow in southern California
March 6, 2020

Debris flow after the 2003 Old Gran Prix fire

Damage from a major post-wildfire landslide that occurred on 25 December 2003 near Devore, San Bernardino County as a result of the Old/Grand Prix fires that ran through the San Bernardino Mountains.

Home damaged by post fire debris flow
March 6, 2020

Home damaged by post-wildfire debris flow in Montecito, CA.

Damage from a major post-wildfire landslide that occurred on 9 January 2018 near Montecito, Santa Barbara County as a result of the 2017 Thomas Fire.

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Two people float in a small boat in a calm inner channel of a marshy area.
November 15, 2021

The delivery and deposition of sediment along coastlines is essential to building barriers such as sandbars, dunes and marshes that protect coastal communities from storms and sea-level rise.

Map of Nevada with grey shape covering most of western and northern Nevada and small parts of eastern California on the border
October 27, 2021

Residents and visitors may witness a low-flying aircraft over western Nevada and part of eastern California starting around November 1, 2021 and continuing into the summer of 2022.

Aerial view of a lake showing the surrounding landscape elevation and the water depth using shades of color.
October 25, 2021

In the year after the Carr Fire in northern California, USGS researchers found that greater-than-average precipitation moved large sediment loads through watersheds—in some cases, orders of magnitude more sediment compared to pre-fire amounts. 

map
September 9, 2021

Residents and visitors should not be alarmed to see a low-flying helicopter over Lemhi and Custer Counties west of Salmon, Idaho from September 6 to October 18, 2021. 

Image shows two scientists in a tall grass field examining something
September 9, 2021

The newly formed Nevada Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit brings state and federal wildlife-management resources together, providing for a cooperative partnership that ensures resources are best serving Nevada’s wildlife and wild places.

A hollowed out base of a sequoia tree
September 7, 2021

As a wildfire approached Tonto National Monument in Arizona, archaeologists and firefighters rushed to cover the park’s 700-year-old cliff dwellings with fire resistant aluminum wrapping.  

USGS
September 7, 2021

The USGS has prepared an Environmental Assessment in accordance with the National Environmental Policy Act for a new Laboratory Facility at Moffett Field in Santa Clara County, California. The USGS is requesting your comments on the EA and Section 106 review by September 22, 2021.

polluted groundwater
September 1, 2021

SACRAMENTO, Calif. – Intensive pumping of aquifers during drought can speed up deterioration of groundwater quality, according to a new study by the U.S. Geological Survey. The results highlight clean drinking water supply vulnerabilities in California and other western states currently experiencing record drought conditions.

A four-panel diagram shows how different amounts of sea-level rise change a coastal system.
September 1, 2021

A new multidisciplinary case study from USGS and collaborators looks at how even modest sea-level rise threatens coastal communities, infrastructure and ecosystems such as beaches, tidal marshes and estuaries by pushing them past “tipping points,” the crucial junctures at which even slight changes can fundamentally alter how an entire system behaves.

july 8 california earthquake
July 8, 2021

A magnitude 6.0 (M6.0) earthquake struck Little Antelope Valley, California near the Nevada border on July 8, 2021 at 3:49pm local time (July 8 at 22:49 UTC). 

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