Unified Interior Regions

Region 1: North Atlantic-Appalachian

January Photo Contest

January Photo Contest

Check out the winning photographs in the January 2020 Photo Contest! Categories include People, USGS at Work, Where We Work, and Honorable Mention

See the photos!

Regions L2 Landing Page Tabs

Filter Total Items: 758
map of Long Island with multicolored dots showing who was funding and where
Date Published: June 9, 2017
Status: Active

Using Microbial Source Tracking to Identify Pollution Sources in Pathogen Impaired Embayments in Long Island, New York

Problem The presence of pathogens in Long Island marine embayments and the hazards they pose to marine resources and human health is of increasing concern. Many waterbodies on the New York State Section 303(d) List of Impaired Waters have pathogens listed as the primary pollutant that are suspected to originate from urban/storm runoff. There is neither a clear understanding of the relative...

photo of sand and grass near coast of Long Island
Date Published: June 8, 2017

Long Island - Location and Physical Setting

Long Island, the eastern-most part of New York State, extends east-northeastward roughly parallel to the Connecticut coastline. It is bounded on the north by Long Island Sound, on the east and south by the Atlantic Ocean, and on the west by New York Bay and the East River. Long Island is joined to the mainland specifically, to the Borough of the Bronx, which is one of the five boroughs of New...

Contacts: Jack Monti
Barrier-island breach created by Hurricane Sandy at Fire Island National Seashore, N.Y.
Date Published: June 7, 2017

Long Island Topography

The present landforms of Long Island are the result of many geologic processes, some of which began many millions of years ago and some of which began only recently. Most of the major features of the present-day topography, however, are related to the last glaciation, which ended approximately 22,000 years ago.

Contacts: Jack Monti
people standing in a stream
Date Published: June 6, 2017

Long Island Population

About 7.56 million people lived on Long Island in 2010. Of these, about 2.50 million are in Kings County, 2.23 million in Queens County, 1.34 million in Nassau County, and 1.49 million in Suffolk County.

Contacts: Jack Monti
woman standing in Long Island estuary
Date Published: June 5, 2017

Long Island Land Use and Land Cover

On Long Island, land use includes the human activities and management practices for which land is used. Land cover is a mosaic of developed, forest, agriculture, and wetlands areas. Both land use and land cover are usually discussed in similar environments. The National Land Cover Database (NLCD) serves as the definitive LANDSAT-based, 30-meter resolution, land cover database for the Nation....

Contacts: Jack Monti
woman sitting on grass writing on paper
Date Published: June 4, 2017

Long Island Freshwater

Long Island is surrounded by an almost limitless amount of saltwater in the Atlantic Ocean, in the Long Island Sound, and in the many bays bordering Long Island. Although the salty water is important to the economy of the area and is of significant recreational value, this website is mainly concerned with the fresh water of Long Island, which from many standpoints, is even more important than...

Contacts: Jack Monti
The Water Cycle for Schools and Kids
Date Published: June 3, 2017

Hydrologic Cycle

The water cycle has no starting point, but we'll begin in the oceans, since that is where most of Earth's water exists. The sun, which drives the water cycle, heats water in the oceans. Some of it evaporates as vapor into the air; a relatively smaller amount of moisture is added as ice and snow sublimate directly from the solid state into vapor. Rising air currents take the vapor up into the ...

Contacts: Jack Monti
photo of raindrops hitting Long Island body of water
Date Published: June 2, 2017

Long Island Precipitation and Recharge

Precipitation is water released from clouds in the form of rain, freezing rain, sleet, snow, or hail. It is the primary connection in the water cycle that provides for the delivery of atmospheric water to the Earth. Most precipitation falls as rain. 

Water seeping down from the land surface and reaching the water table adds to the groundwater and is called groundwater recharge....

Contacts: Jack Monti
Clove Lake, Long Island water flowing under viaduct
Date Published: June 1, 2017

Long Island Surface Water

Streams either gain water from inflow of groundwater from the underlying aquifer or lose water by outflow to the underlying aquifer. Many streams do both, gaining in some reaches and losing in other reaches. Furthermore, the groundwater flow directions near any given stream can change seasonally as the altitude of the water table changes with respect to the stream-surface altitude or when...

Contacts: Jack Monti
van wih groundwater sampling equipment on Long Island
Date Published: May 31, 2017
Status: Active

Long Island Groundwater

Approximately 30% of the world’s water is stored as groundwater. Groundwater moves very slowly, on the order of feet per day, however it is still part of the hydrologic cycle. Most of the water in the ground comes from precipitation that infiltrates downward from the land surface.

Contacts: Jack Monti
photo of 5 Long Island core samples
Date Published: May 30, 2017

Long Island Hydrogeologic Units

Long Island’s aquifer system consists of a seaward-dipping wedge of mostly unconsolidated stratified sediments comprised of sand, gravel, silt and clay.

Contacts: Jack Monti
2 USGS scientists in inflatable boat on tidal marsh on Long Island
Date Published: May 29, 2017

Long Island Fresh and Saltwater Relations/Interactions

Because saltwater has a greater density than freshwater, fresh groundwater in coastal aquifers will overlie any saltwater that is present in the aquifer at depth (Figure 14).

Contacts: Jack Monti
Filter Total Items: 350
Photo of historic water data reports for New Jersey
March 15, 2008

2004, September 18-19 Flood Peak Table

September 17-23, 2004, flooding on the Delaware River and its tributaries in New Jersey

Photo of historic water data reports for New Jersey
February 29, 2008

Summary of historical flood peaks and peaks from the July 12-14, 2004, flood event at USGS sites

Filter Total Items: 15,337
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Year Published: 2018

The Central African Republic Diamond Database—A geodatabase of archival diamond occurrences and areas of recent artisanal and small-scale diamond mining

The alluvial diamond deposits of the Central African Republic (CAR) are mined almost exclusively by way of informal artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) methods. ASM sites range in diameter from a few meters to 30 meters or more, and are typically excavated by crews of diggers using hand tools, sieves, and jigs. CAR’s reported annual production...

DeWitt, Jessica D.; Chirico, Peter G.; Bergstresser, Sarah E.; Clark, Inga E.
DeWitt, J.D., Chirico, P.G., Bergstresser, S.E., and Clark, I.E., 2018, The Central African Republic Diamond Database—A geodatabase of archival diamond occurrences and areas of recent artisanal and small-scale diamond mining: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2018–1088, 28 p., 1 pl., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20181088.

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Year Published: 2018

The significance of dinoflagellates in the Miocene Choptank Formation beneath the Midlothian gravels in the southeastern Virginia Piedmont

The Fall Line (formally “Tidewater Fall Line”) separates the more resistant igneous, metamorphic, and consolidated sedimentary rocks of the Piedmont from the typically unconsolidated deposits of the Coastal Plain of Virginia. Widespread but now discontinuous patches of a deeply weathered sand and gravel are found west of the Fall Line, capping...

Edwards, Lucy E.; Weems, Robert E.; Carter, Mark W.; Spears, David B.; Powars, David S.

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Year Published: 2018

Hydrologic characteristics and water quality of headwater streams and wetlands at the Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site, Summit area, Blair and Cambria Counties, Pennsylvania, 2014–16

The Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site (ALPO) in Blair and Cambria Counties, Pennsylvania, protects historic features of the first railroad portage over the Allegheny Front and the first railroad tunnel in the United States. This report, which was completed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service...

Cravotta, Charles A.; Galeone, Daniel G.; Penrod, Kathy A.
Cravotta, C.A., III, Galeone, D.G., and Penrod, K.A., 2018, Hydrologic characteristics and water quality of headwater streams and wetlands at the Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site, Summit area, Blair and Cambria Counties, Pennsylvania, 2014–16 (ver. 1.1, December 2018): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2018–1125, 21 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/ofr20181125.

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Year Published: 2018

Climate Assessments and Scenario Planning (CLASP)

The NE CASC boasts an interdisciplinary array of scientists, from ecologists to biologists, hydrologists to climatologists, each contributing new, original academic research to advance our understanding of the impacts of climate change on wildlife and other natural resources in the Northeast. Needed was an outreach specialist who would interface...

Varela Minder, Elda; Bryan, Alexander

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Year Published: 2018

Multidirectional abundance shifts among North American birds and the relative influence of multifaceted climate factors

Shifts in species distributions are major fingerprint of climate change. Examining changes in species abundance structures at a continental scale enables robust evaluation of climate change influences, but few studies have conducted these evaluations due to limited data and methodological constraints. In this study, we estimate temporal changes in...

Huang, Qiongyu; Sauer, John R.; Dubayah, Ralph O.
Huang, Q., Sauer, J. R., and Dubayah, R. O., 2017, Multi-directional abundance shifts among North American birds and the relative influence of multi-faceted climate factors: Global Change Biology, v. 23, no. 9, p. 3610-3622.

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Year Published: 2018

Mid-Atlantic forest ecosystem vulnerability assessment and synthesis: a report from the Mid-Atlantic Climate Change Response Framework project

Forest ecosystems will be affected directly and indirectly by a changing climate over the 21st century. This assessment evaluates the vulnerability of 11 forest ecosystems in the Mid-Atlantic region (Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Delaware, eastern Maryland, and southern New York) under a range of future climates. We synthesized and summarized...

Butler-Leopold, Patricia R.; Iverson, Louis R.; Thompson, Frank R.; Brandt, Leslie A.; Handler, Stephen D.; Janowiak, Maria K.; Shannon, P. Danielle; Swanston, Christopher W.; Bearer, Scott; Bryan, Alexander; Clark, Kenneth L.; Czarnecki, Greg; DeSenze, Philip; Dijak, William D.; Fraser, Jacob S.; Gugger, Paul F.; Hille, Andrea; Hynicka, Justin; Jantz, Claire A.; Kelly, Matthew C.; Krause, Katrina M.; La Puma, Inga Parker; Landau, Deborah; Lathrop, Richard G.; Leites, Laura P.; Madlinger, Evan; Matthews, Stephen N.; Ozbay, Gulnihal; Peters, Matthew P.; Prasad, Anantha; Schmit, David A.; Shephard, Collin; Shirer, Rebecca; Skowronski, Nicholas S.; Steele, Al; Stout, Susan; Thomas-Van Gundy, Melissa; Thompson, John; Turcotte, Richard M.; Weinstein, David A.; Yáñez, Alfonso

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Year Published: 2018

Salt marsh loss affects tides and sediment budget in shallow bays

The current paradigm is that salt marshes and their important ecosystem services are threatened by global climate change; indeed, large marsh losses have been documented worldwide. Morphological changes associated with salt marsh erosion are expected to influence the hydrodynamics and sediment dynamics of coastal systems. Here the influence of...

Donatelli, Carmine; Ganju, Neil Kamal; Zhang, Xiaohe; Fagherazzi, Sergio; Leonardi, Nicoletta

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Year Published: 2018

Preliminary evaluation of behavioral response of nesting waterbirds to small unmanned aircraft flight

Small unmanned aircraft systems present an emerging technology with the potential to survey colonial waterbird populations while reducing disturbance in comparison to traditional ground counts. Recent research with these systems has been performed on some colonially nesting avian species; however, none have focused on wading bird species. During...

Reintsma, Kaitlyn; McGowan, Peter C.; Callahan, Carl R.; Collier, Tom; Gray, David; Sullivan, Jeffery D.; Prosser, Diann J.
Reinstma, K. M., McGowan, P. C., Callahan, C., Collier, T., Gray, D., Sullivan, J. D., and Prosser, D. J., 2018, Preliminary evaluation of ehavioral response of nesting waterbirds to small unmanned aircraft flight: Waterbirds, v. 41, no. 3, p. 326-331. https://doi.org/10.1675/063.041.0314

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Year Published: 2018

A geostatistical state‐space model of animal densities for stream networks

Population dynamics are often correlated in space and time due to correlations in environmental drivers as well as synchrony induced by individual dispersal. Many statistical analyses of populations ignore potential autocorrelations and assume that survey methods (distance and time between samples) eliminate these correlations, allowing samples to...

Hocking, Daniel J.; Thorson, James T.; O'Neil, Kyle; Letcher, Benjamin H.

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Year Published: 2018

Quantifying climate sensitivity and climate-driven change in North American amphibian communities

Changing climate will impact species’ ranges only when environmental variability directly impacts the demography of local populations. However, measurement of demographic responses to climate change has largely been limited to single species and locations. Here we show that amphibian communities are responsive to climatic variability, using >...

Miller, David A.W.; Campbell Grant, Evan H.; Muths, Erin L.; Amburgey, Staci M.; Adams, M.J.; Joseph, Maxwell B.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Johnson, Pieter T.J.; Ryan, Maureen E.; Schmidt, Benedikt R.; Calhoun, Daniel L.; Davis, Courtney L.; Fisher, Robert N.; Green, David M.; Hossack, Blake R.; Rittenhouse, Tracy A.G.; Walls, Susan C.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Cruickshank, Sam S.; Fellers, Gary M.; Gorman, Thomas A.; Haas, Carola A.; Hughson, Ward; Pilliod, David S.; Price, Steven J.; Ray, Andrew M.; Sadinski, Walter; Saenz, Daniel; Barichivich, William J.; Brand, Adrianne B,; Brehme, Cheryl S.; Dagit, Rosi; Delaney, Katy S.; Glorioso, Brad M.; Kats, Lee B.; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Pearl, Christopher; Rochester, Carlton J.; Riley, Seth P. D.; Roth, Mark F.; Sigafus, Brent
Miller, D. A. W., Grant, E. H. C., Muths, E., Amburgey, S. M., Adams, M. J., Joseph, M. B., Waddle, J. H., Johnson, P. J. T., Ryan, M. E., Schmid, B. R., Calhoun, D. L., Davis, C. L., Fisher, R. N., Green, D. M., Hossack, B. R., Rittenhouse, T. A. G., Walls, S. C., Bailey, L. L., Cruickshank, S. S., Fellers, G. M., Gorman, T. A., Haas, C. A., Hughson, W., Pilliod, D. S., Price, S. J., Ray, A. M., Sadinski, W., Saenz, D., Barichivich, W. J., Brand, A. B., Brehme, C. S., Dagit, R., Delaney, K. S., Glorioso, B. M., Kats, L. B., Kleeman, P. M., Pearl, C. A., Rochester, C. J., Riley, S. P. D., Roth, M., and Sigafus, B. H., 2018, Quantifying climate sensitivity and climate-driven change in North American amphibian communities: Nature Communications, v. 9, no. Article number: 3926, p. 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06157-6

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Year Published: 2018

Variation in the vital rates of an Antarctic marine predator: the role of individual heterogeneity

Variation in life‐history traits such as lifespan and lifetime reproductive output is thought to arise, in part, due to among‐individual differences in the underlying probabilities of survival and reproduction. However, the stochastic nature of demographic processes can also generate considerable variation in fitness‐related traits among otherwise...

Paterson, J. Terrill; Rotella, Jay J.; Link, William A.; Garrott, Robert A.

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Year Published: 2018

Deciphering the dynamics of inorganic carbon export from intertidal salt marshes using high-frequency measurements

The lateral export of carbon from coastal marshes via tidal exchange is a key component of the marsh carbon budget and coastal carbon cycles. However, the magnitude of this export has been difficult to accurately quantify due to complex tidal dynamics and seasonal cycling of carbon. In this study, we use in situ...

Chu, Sophie N.; Wang, Zhaohui Aleck; Gonneea, Meagan; Kroeger, Kevin D.; Ganju, Neil Kamal

Filter Total Items: 1,025
Virginia Water Science Center Office
July 20, 2017

Virginia Science Office

Virginia and West Virginia Water Science Center: Virginia Science Office, Richmond.

Screen Shot aerial imagery of Lake Ontario shoreline at Braddock Bay, New York
July 10, 2017

Aerial photograph of Lake Ontario shoreline at Braddock Bay, New York

Screen shot of eerial imagery from unmanned aerial systems (UAS) flights over the Lake Ontario shoreline at Braddock Bay, New York, July 10 to 11, 2017

A flying insect on lakeshore grasses.
June 30, 2017

A flying insect on lakeshore grasses

A flying insect perched on lakeshore grasses, Albemarle County, Virginia.

White Heron in Marsh
June 30, 2017

White Heron in Marsh

A white heron flying across a marsh in York County, Virginia.

A technician sits at a computer while running a sediment core through the Geotek.
June 28, 2017

FBGC Lab - Core Scanning

A technician sits at a computer while running a sediment core through the Geotek.

A team of scientists prepares to board their core collecting platform
June 28, 2017

Nomini Bay, VA

A team of scientists prepare to collect cores from the Nomini Bay, VA.

King Creek in York County, Virginia
June 27, 2017

King Creek in York County, Virginia

A panoramic photo of King Creek near the Colonial Parkway in York County, Virginia.