Kīlauea

Past Year Monitoring Data for Kīlauea

Seismic Data

Earthquake Hypocenters Map and Cross Section - Past Year

Earthquake Hypocenters Map - Past Year - Kīlauea

Depth of Earthquakes - Past Month - Kīlauea

Above Top: Map showing locations of earthquakes during the past year. Bottom: Depth of earthquakes (circles) during the past year. Circle-size represents magnitude, and color indicates depth. An interactive earthquake plot can be found on the HVO Earthquakes page.

Earthquake Rates and Depths - Past Year

Earthquake Rates - Past Year - Kīlauea

Earthquake Depths - Past Year - Kīlauea

Above Top: Number of earthquakes per week during the past year (blue bars). The red line is the cumulative moment (energy) release. Bottom: Depth of earthquakes during the past year in the area shown on the map above. On both figures, circle-size represents magnitude, and color indicates depth. An interactive earthquake plot can be found on the HVO Earthquakes page.

Select deformation instuments located on Kīlauea Volcano

Select deformation instuments located on Kīlauea Volcano. (Public domain.)

Deformation Data

Map of Selected Deformation Stations

For more information on how electronic tiltmeters and GPS receivers help monitor the deformation of Kīlauea Volcano, see the HVO Deformation page. Data plots from additional stations are available from our interactive map. Use the right-side menu to view different types of data.

 

 

 

 

Global Positioning System - Past Year

Kīlauea Summit

Global Positioning System - Past Year - Kīlauea

Change in distance between two Global Positioning System (GPS) stations located on opposite sides of Kīlauea's caldera. A rapid increase in distance can be interpreted as inflation of the summit magma reservoir or Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō magma storage chamber.

Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō Cone

Global Positioning System - Past Year - Kīlauea

Change in distance between two stations near Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō. A rapid increase in distance can be interpreted as inflation of the summit magma reservoir or Pu‘u ‘Ō‘ō magma storage chamber.

Gas Data

Sulfur dioxide emission rates - Kīlauea summit - past year

Sulfur dioxide emission rates - Kīlauea summit - past year

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emission rates measured using an upward-looking ultraviolet spectrometer. These data are collected by traversing the gas plume in a vehicle, downwind of Halema‘uma‘u, generally within and south of Kīlauea Caldera. Results from multiple traverses during a day are averaged to yield the emission rates shown here. Successful measurements depend on wind, weather, and staff availability. Values are preliminary and are subject to revision.

Summit Water Depth

Plot of water depth in the lake at Kilauea Volcano

Water formed a tiny pond at the bottom of Halema‘uma‘u crater, at the summit of Kīlauea Volcano, in late July 2019. The pond has slowly deepened since then. HVO scientists measure water level almost daily using a small laser rangefinder mounted on a tripod. The measurements are made dependent on weather, wind, and staff availability. The rangefinder calculates the vertical distance (in meters; one meter is approximately equal to one yard) above the water surface. This distance is subtracted from the known elevation of the laser rangefinder to yield the elevation of the water surface. The elevation of the floor of Halema‘uma‘u crater, determined before the pond formed, is then subtracted from the elevation of the water surface to give the depth of the pond above. The water depths depicted here result from 15–20 measurements made for several minutes on one particular day. The water body is more than one kilometer from the rangefinder, and measurement errors at this distance may yield small apparent fluctuations in water depth that are not real.