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Water properties
Measurable physical and chemical characteristics of water from different sources.
Subtopics:
Dissolved gases (4 items)
Dissolved metals (9 items)
Dissolved organic compounds (9 items)
Nutrient content (water) (27 items)
Oxygen content (water) (13 items)
Salinity (13 items)
Suspended material (water) (17 items)
Water hardness (3 items)
Water pH (11 items)
Water temperature (9 items)
Related topics:


Results 1 - 83 of 84 listed alphabetically [list by similarity]
PDF A science strategy to support management decisions related to hypoxia in the northern Gulf Of Mexico and excess nutrients in the Mississippi River Basin [More info]
The report describes a strategy for monitoring, modeling, and research activities to support management decisions to improve water-quality conditions in the Mississippi River Basin, reduce hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico, and improve conditions for
PDF Acid Rain in Shenandoah National Park, Virginia [More info]
Explains acidity and acid rain and how it affects aquatic organisms. Describes the effect of acid rain on this national park, identifying areas that are at greater or lesser risk from acid rain.
PDF Acid rain effects on Adirondack streams - results from the 2003-05 western Adirondack stream survey (the WASS Project) [More info]
Acidified soils caused toxic aluminum in 66 percent of 565 assessed streams. Diatoms and aquatic macroinvertebrates were moderately to severely affected. These effects have not improved in areas surveyed in the early 1980s
PDF Application of the SPARROW watershed model to describe nutrient sources and transport in the Missouri River Basin [More info]
Maps and diagrams showing how the mathematical model predicts the distribution of various pollutants within a large watershed.
Atchafalaya & Mississippi River Deltas study: a tale of two deltas [More info]
Project of the Gulf of Mexico Integrated Science program that evaluates the transport and sedimentation of contaminates through the Mississippi River and Atchafalaya River delta to the near-shore Gulf of Mexico. Includes aerial photographs.
PDF Chloride control and monitoring program in the Wichita River Basin, Texas, 1996-2009 [More info]
Chloride concentrations in this river have historically been high due to natural saltwater springs and seeps from geologic formations. We monitor the water to help assess the progress of human efforts designed to mitigate this problematic salinity.
PDF Decadal-scale changes in dissolved-solids concentrations in groundwater used for public supply [More info]
Recent increases in dissolved-solids concentrations in this aquifer have been documented in some areas used for public supply, raising concerns as to the sources and causes of the higher concentrations and the long-term effects on groundwater quality.
Dissolved solids in basin-fill aquifers and streams in the southwestern United States [More info]
PDF Early results from the Northern Gulf of Mexico Ecosystem Change and Hazard Susceptibility Project [More info]
A coordinated set of studies shows development of coastal features, aspects of marine water quality, and impacts of hurricanes along this section of important coastline.
PDF Effects of wastewater on forested wetlands [More info]
Study of the effects of the practice of cycling municipal nutrient-enriched wastewater from holding ponds through forested wetlands. Studies were in the Cypiere Perdue Swamp, Louisiana, and the Drummond Bog, Wisconsin.
PDF Evaluating the variability of sediment and nutrient loading from riverine systems into Texas estuaries and bays [More info]
Some results from a study of the variability of sediment and nutrient loads in the lower reaches of the Trinity River during a variety of hydrologic conditions.
PDF Evaluation of fecal contamination by human and ruminant sources in upper Fountain Creek, Colorado, 2007-2008, by using multiple lines of evidence: [More info]
Microbial source tracking analysis of water sampled supports the argument that birds are the primary source of fecal contamination during the warm season.
PDF Examination of brine contamination risk to aquatic resources from petroleum development in the Williston Basin [More info]
Wetlands and oil wells shouldn't mix, but in some areas they do. This explains what problems may arise and how we study the effects of highly salty water produced by oil wells when it leaks into nearby wetlands and streams.
Geomorphology and sediment transport -- river mechanics [More info]
Current river mechanics research on particle friction angles of fluvial gravels (data files compressed in BenHex, Winzip and Unix) and Grand Canyon Beach evolution (animation requiring Java 1.0) plus digital elevation files (*.hgx and *.zip files).
Groundwater quality in Coachella Valley, California [More info]
Five trace elements with human-health concerns were detected at high concentrations: arsenic, boron, fluoride, molybdenum, and strontium. Vanadium was present at moderate concentrations.
Groundwater quality in the Antelope Valley, California [More info]
Trace elements were present at high concentrations in 32% of the primary aquifers here, and at moderate concentrations in 17%. Of particular interest are aluminum, arsenic, vanadium, boron, fluoride, chromium, lead, and molybdenum.
Groundwater quality in the Coastal Los Angeles Basin, California [More info]
The occurrence of solvents in the groundwater is not correlated with current overlying land use and human activities. Rather, the solvents are from legacy industrial uses, and it has taken decades for the groundwater to move to where it is now pumped.
Groundwater quality in the Colorado River basins, California [More info]
Five trace elements with human-health concerns were detected at high concentrations: arsenic, boron, fluoride, molybdenum, and strontium. Chromium was detected at moderate concentrations.
Groundwater quality in the Indian Wells Valley, California [More info]
Five trace elements with human-health concerns were detected at high concentrations: arsenic, boron, molybdenum, strontium, and vanadium. Chromium and fluoride were detected at moderate concentrations.
Groundwater quality in the Madera and Chowchilla subbasins of the San Joaquin Valley, California [More info]
Uranium, arsenic, and nitrate were the inorganic constituents that were most frequently detected at high concentrations, mostly in shallower wells. High and moderate concentrations of arsenic were detected in deeper wells.
Groundwater quality in the Mojave area, California [More info]
Six elements with human-health concerns were detected at high concentrations: arsenic, boron, fluoride, molybdenum, strontium, and vanadium. Lead was present at moderate concentrations.
Groundwater quality in the Monterey Bay and Salinas Valley groundwater basins, California [More info]
This study of untreated groundwater indicates the number of samples in which inorganic or organic constituents occur in high or moderate in concentration. The study does not indicate significant problems in groundwater quality here.
Groundwater quality in the Owens Valley, California [More info]
Trace elements boron, arsenic, and molybdenum were found at high concentrations in 15% of primary aquifers in this area.
Groundwater quality in the San Diego Drainages Hydrogeologic Province, California [More info]
Vanadium and boron were detected at high and moderate concentrations in this area. High concentrations for these constituents were detected almost exclusively in samples collected in the Temecula Valley study area.
Groundwater quality in the San Fernando--San Gabriel groundwater basins, California [More info]
Organic solvents are the chief concern in this area, which has given rise to a systematic program of monitoring and water treatment. This study shows relatively recent results.
Groundwater quality in the San Francisco Bay groundwater basins, California [More info]
The constituent present at high concentrations in the greatest proportion of the primary aquifer system was TDS, which is an indicator of salinity. Perchlorate was also present at moderate concentration in 42% of samples.
Groundwater quality in the Santa Clara River Valley, California [More info]
This study of untreated groundwater indicates the number of samples in which inorganic or organic constituents occur in high or moderate in concentration. The study does not indicate significant problems in groundwater quality here.
Groundwater quality in the Southern Sierra Nevada, California [More info]
Recent study indicating inorganic constituents as the primary items of concern in this area. Chemical and mineralogical compositions of the aquifer rocks probably explain variation among localities here.
Groundwater quality in the Upper Santa Ana Watershed study unit, California [More info]
Recent study indicating nitrate and perchlorate are the primary inorganic constituents of interest here, coming from human activities such as agriculture.
PDF Groundwater quality of southeastern Wyoming [More info]
Explains how we assess groundwater quality here, what characteristics are important, and how they hurt or, in some cases, help use use the water.
Hudson River salt front data [More info]
Tide stage, specific conductance, water temperature, and freshwater inflow at selected Hudson River (New York) gages updated every 4-hours to measure the effects of freshwater withdrawals and upstream movement of the salt front.
Hydrologic studies in the Upper Klamath Basin, Oregon [More info]
Overview of Klamath ecological research and links to USGS Klamath studies on ground water, nutrients, sediment oxygen demand, and fish response to water quality, sucker ecology, publications, bibliographies, and data.
Hypoxia [More info]
A brief definition and explanation of hypoxia with special reference to the Gulf of Mexico hypoxic zone along the Louisiana-Texas coast as well as extensive links to USGS and other related information resources.
Hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico and related USGS activities [More info]
Information about the causes and impact of hypoxia with links to USGS and other Federal agency information and activities related to nutrients in the Mississippi River Basin and hypoxia in the Gulf of Mexico.
PDF Integrated geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies of Big Bend National Park, Texas [More info]
Coordinated studies of the effect of historical mining for mercury, origin and composition of metals in groundwaters and surface waters, history of volcanic and intrusive activity, and the complex geological history of this area.
Johnson Creek basin hydrologic monitoring [More info]
Hydrologic data and analyses of surface-water, water quality, and ground water in the Johnson Creek basin in Oregon.
Lower Columbia River dissolved gas monitoring network [More info]
Links to real-time data for total dissolved gas, temperature, and barometric pressure in lower Columbia River in Oregon and Washington and to project reports.
PDF Methods for estimating concentrations and loads of selected constituents in tributaries to Lake Houston near Houston, Texas [More info]
Water from this reservoir will be used more extensively by the city, so we are developing methods of assessing the water quality in real time by measuring characteristics of stream flow that correlate with important water quality data.
Moderate-resolution sea surface temperature data for the nearshore North Pacific [More info]
Downloadable monthly average SST data along the north Pacific coast in 4km grid cells for 29 years as shapefile, CSV, GIS grids, and Microsoft Access databases.
National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program [More info]
Primary homepage for the National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program studying water quality in river, aquifer and coastal water basins throughout the nation. Links to reports, data, models, maps and national synthesis studies.
National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program - Water quality in the Puget Sound Basin [More info]
The Puget Sound Basin is a National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program study unit for studying the status, trends, and changes affecting the nation's water quality. Site links to data, publications, and results.
National Water-Quality Assessment data warehouse [More info]
Data warehouse for national water quality program with links to chemical, biological, and physical data for water, sediment and animal tissues, nutrient, pesticide, and VOC levels, streamflow, and ground water levels from national study units.
National field manual for the collection of water-quality data [More info]
Field manual (also available in PDF and paper formats) with instructions on techniques to collect and process water samples and to perform measurements of temperature, oxygen content, conductance, pH, turbidity, and fecal contaminants.
New Jersey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) homepage [More info]
Brief discussion of two water quality studies in the state of New Jersey with links to the Long-Island-New York Coastal Drainages study unit and the Delaware River Basin study unit.
PDF Nitrate concentrations and potential sources in the Barton Springs segment of the Edwards aquifer and its contributing zone, Central Texas [More info]
The area contributing recharge to this aquifer is undergoing rapid growth, generating more wastewater. We found that nitrate, a major component of wastewater and a nutrient that can degrade water quality, has increased in the creeks in this area.
Nitrate in ground water near La Pine, Oregon [More info]
Description of project studying hydrologic and chemical processes that affect the movement and fate of nitrogen within the shallow aquifers of the La Pine region of central Oregon.
Nutrients National Synthesis Project: nutrients in rivers, streams, and aquifers in the United States [More info]
This Nutrients National Synthesis Project site on the U.S. study of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, as contaminants in high concentrations links to an overview, study team, featured reports, publications, and national datasets.
Oceanographic time series data [More info]
Oceanographic time-series data obtained from moored instruments, generally provided in NetCDF format.
Ohio District's Microbiology Program [More info]
Overview of microbiology projects related to water quality investigating bacteria, viral and protozoan pathogens and indicators in the environment with links to publications, analytical and field methods, laboratory, and current projects.
PDF Organic compounds assessed in Neuse River water used for public supply near Smithfield, North Carolina, 2002-2005 [More info]
Reports concentration of organic compounds here, to serve as a baseline against which future measurements can be compared and to provide a general assessment of the quality of local water treatment efforts.
Phosphorus and groundwater: Establishing links between agricultural use and transport to streams [More info]
Explains why phosphorus is important, how it moves through the terrestrial water system, how we measure it, and what this means for people who need to manage or monitor human activities that produce it.
Produced waters database [More info]
Database provides information on petroleum reservoirs, type and abundance of constituents dissolved in produced water, geochemical reactions between the water and rock, hydrology and geologic, spatial distribution of petroleum production areas.
Real-time water-quality monitoring and regression analysis to estimate nutrient and bacteria concentration in Kansas streams. [More info]
Report on the use of regression equations from measurements made by water quality monitors and analytical results of manually collected samples estimating nutrient, bacteria, and other constituent concentrations to study streams in Kansas.
Recent changes in the food web of Lake Erie - the role of phosphorus and zebra mussels [More info]
Brief overview of the proliferation of zebra mussels and the role of phosphorus in Lake Erie with links to publications related to Lake Erie water quality.
PDF Redox Conditions in Selected Principal Aquifers of the United States [More info]
Summarizes measurements of ground-water chemistry that affect the vulnerability of aquifers to contamination. Data are from aquifers throughout the conterminous US and Alaska.
PDF Regional assessments of the Nation's water quality--Improved understanding of stream nutrient sources through enhanced modeling capabilities [More info]
Studies of the sources, transport, and fate of nutrients in the streams of six major regions of the conterminous United States.
PDF Relations among land cover, streamflow, and water quality in the North Canadian River Basin near Oklahoma City, Oklahoma: 1968-2009 [More info]
Data explains spatial differences and temporal trends in water quality, specifically dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations.
PDF Response of Florida shelf ecosystems to climate change: from macro to micro scales [More info]
Study of the effects of ocean acidification on regional carbonate processes, changes in individual estuaries, and organism-level response.
PDF Response of lake chemistry to atmospheric deposition and climate in selected Class I wilderness areas in the western United States, 1993-2009 [More info]
Sulfate deposition to high-elevation areas has decreased here as a result of reductions in SO2 emissions. Nitrate deposition did not change, whereas ammonium deposition increased, particularly at sites near urban and agricultural areas.
Reston Chlorofluorocarbon Laboratory [More info]
Site on the Chlorofluorocarbon Laboratory and its analytical services for CFCs, sulfur hexafluoride, dissolved gases including nitrogen, argon, methane, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and helium, and tritium/helium-3 dating.
PDF Science-Based Strategies for Sustaining Coral Ecosystems [More info]
Explains the environmental factors that affect coral reef habitats and ecosystems, focusing on those that pose urgent problems.
Sediment load from major rivers into Puget Sound and its adjacent waters [More info]
Sediment from rivers has both beneficial and detrimental effects on ecosystems and human activities around Puget Sound. We explain where the sediment comes from, how it is transported, and the nature of the data that we can use to understand it.
South Florida Ecosystem History Project [More info]
Project is designed to integrate studies from a number of researchers compiling data from terrestrial, marine, and freshwater ecosystems within south Florida. Links to publications, maps, posters, and data of studies.
Studying ocean acidification in the Arctic Ocean [More info]
New synoptic data from samples collected in the Arctic Ocean and insights into the patterns and extent of ocean acidification. This foundational geochemical information will help us to understand potential risks to Arctic resources.
Summary of suspended-sediment concentration data, San Francisco Bay, California, water year 2000 [More info]
Suspended-sediment concentration data were collected in San Francisco Bay during water year 2000 using optical backscatterance sensors and water samples. This report presents the data-collection methods, data, and calibration plots.
Surface water information pages [More info]
Lead page for detailed United States surface water information with links to real-time and historic streamflow data, suspended sediment data, USGS programs and facilities, publications, techniques, and featured news releases.
Suspended-sediment database: daily values of suspended sediment and ancillary data [More info]
Enables searching by state, hydrologic region, basin, time period, and length of record to retrieve suspended sediment data for the United States.
PDF Sustainability of natural attenuation of nitrate in agricultural aquifers [More info]
Nitrate from fertilizer is degraded by microbial action in the presence of solid minerals. This helps mitigate the effect of the nitrate, but begins to diminish the solid minerals needed. Will the process be sustainable in the long term?
PDF Taste and odor occurrence in Lake William C. Bowen and Municipal Reservoir #1, Spartanburg County, South Carolina [More info]
Explains why and how water from this reservoir, and others like it, sometimes acquire undesirable taste or odor, yet are not dangerous to drink.
The Gulf of Mexico Hypoxic Zone [More info]
Information and links to USGS and other Federal agency monitoring and research concerning the hypoxic zone in the northern Gulf of Mexico occurring along the Louisiana-Texas coast.
The U.S. Geological Survey and the Chesapeake Bay - the role of science in environmental restoration [More info]
Summary of a circular on USGS environmental research and Chesapeake Bay with links to full document. Includes discussion of the problems of the estuary, restoration efforts, water quality, and effects on ecosystem.
PDF Toxicity and bioavailability of metals in the Missouri River adjacent to a lead refinery [More info]
Report (PDF format) on an evaluation of the potential environmental impacts of contaminated ground water from a metals refinery adjacent to the Missouri River in Omaha, Nebraska testing water and sediments for contaminants and toxicity.
Transport of water, carbon, and sediment through the Yukon River basin [More info]
Summarizes a water-quality study of one of the last great uncontrolled rivers in the world, which supplies runoff, sediment, and nutrients to the eastern Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea.
Tualatin River basin water quality assessment [More info]
Overview of project assessing water quality of the Tualatin River basin near Portland, Oregon with links to reports on chemical and nutrient levels and selected data on streamflow, water temperature, weather and precipitation.
PDF Twelve Years of Monitoring Phosphorus and Suspended-Solids Concentrations and Yields in the North Fork Ninnescah River above Cheney Reservoir, South-Central Kansas 1997-2008 [More info]
Water quality is important here because this reservoir is the primary supply for Wichita, Kansas. Due to low streamflow during the monitoring period, we expect suspended sediment and phosphorus to be more variable in the future.
USGS / Department of Energy cooperative studies in Nevada [More info]
Describes cooperation of the USGS office in Las Vegas, Nevada, with the Department of Energy to address environmental and scientific issues at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity with links to project information.
PDF Understanding Contaminants Associated with Mineral Deposits [More info]
Outlines processes that control the release of metals and acidic waters from inactive mines and mineralized areas, the transport of metals and acidic waters to streams, and the fate and effect of metals and acidity on downstream ecosystems.
Upper Mississippi River basin: sediments, contaminants, and nutrients [More info]
Downloadable data and map images depicting sedimentation changes and contaminants in sediments in the upper Mississippi River.
Water resources of Virginia - chloride monitoring network [More info]
Description of project to study the distribution of saline water in the aquifers of the Coastal Plain of Virginia and the potential for saline water intrusion by evaluating chloride concentrations and the factors affecting chloride distribution.
Water science for schools: common water measurements [More info]
Explanation of common water properties including temperature, pH, specific conductance, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, hardness and suspended sediment for students and general public.
Water science for schools: the activity center - challenge questions [More info]
Educational site for elementary school students with questions to challenge students plus links to opinion surveys, questionnaires, and water facts.
Water science for schools: water properties [More info]
Educational site for elementary school students on the properties of water with links to a true/false quiz, common water measurements, pH, and water facts.
WaterQualityWatch -Continuous Real-Time Water Quality of Surface Water in the United States [More info]
Maps and explanations of continuous real-time data collection methods and results, including water temperature, turbididty, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, and stream discharge values.
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