Traditionally, management of water resources has focused on surface water or groundwater as if they were separate entities. As development of land and water resources increases, it is apparent that development of either of these resources affects the quantity and quality of the other. Nearly all surface-water features (streams, lakes, reservoirs, wetlands, and estuaries) interact with groundwater. These interactions take many forms. In many situations, surface-water bodies gain water and solutes from groundwater systems and in others the surface-water body is a source of groundwater recharge and causes changes in groundwater quality. As a result, withdrawal of water from streams can deplete groundwater or conversely, pumpage of groundwater can deplete water in streams, lakes, or wetlands. Pollution of surface water can cause degradation of groundwater quality and conversely pollution of groundwater can degrade surface water.
To better understand the exchange of groundwater and surface water, we coupled groundwater monitoring at the stream bank with nearby gages in the stream. Describes the procedure and results from several areas.