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Earth characteristics
The measurable, definable properties and features of the earth.
Subtopics:
Atmospheric properties (21 items)
Earth material properties (8 items)
Earth structure (13 items)
Geologic history (42 items)
Geologic structure (36 items)
Gravitational field (earth) (12 items)
Land surface characteristics (52 items)
Magnetic field (earth) (18 items)
Ocean characteristics (66 items)
Rocks and deposits (157 items)
Snow and ice cover (19 items)
Stratigraphic sections (26 items)
Topography (59 items)
Related topics:


Results 213 - 424 of 453 listed by similarity [list alphabetically]
PDF Hazards Management in Grand County, Colorado-Fire Fuels Characterization [More info]
Using land cover, vegetation, vegetation health, and other characteristics derived from remote-sensing imagery, we develop geospatial models depicting the susceptibility of this area to wildfires.
Historical mapping [More info]
Information on researching and locating historical maps with reference to basic references and collections of the National Archives, Library of Congress, and the U.S. Geological Survey. Includes instructions for ordering copies of historic USGS maps.
PDF Holocene evolution of Apalachicola Bay, Florida [More info]
Geophysical surveying, combined with analysis of sediment cores and radiometric dating were used to describe the likely history of formation of this area.
How do geologists date rocks? Radiometric dating! [More info]
Explanation of how geologists date rocks (to determine the ages of the Earth, fossils, mineral deposits, and other geologic events) and processes using radiometric dating techniques based on radioactive isotopes of carbon and potassium/argon.
Hurricane and extreme storm impact studies: coastal and nearshore mapping with scanning airborne laser (LIDAR) [More info]
Airborne scanning laser surveys (LIDAR) are used to obtaining data to investigate the magnitude and causes of coastal changes that occur during severe storms. Links to examples of coastal mapping during specific hurricanes.
Hydrates cruise in the Gulf of Mexico [More info]
Investigation of the upper- and middle continental slope of the Mississippi Canyon, including the Gulf of Mexico, for the distribution of gas-hydrate deposits with links to a DEM image map, bathymetry data, and research technology.
Hydrogeologic framework of Antelope Valley and Bedell Flat, Washoe County, west-central Nevada [More info]
Description of the hydrogeologic framework of Antelope Valley and Bedell Flat in west-central Nevada north of Reno-Sparks area. Gravimetric and seismic-refraction methods were used in the study. Report available in PDF format or HTML format.
PDF Identification of tsunami deposits in the geologic record; developing criteria using recent tsunami deposits [More info]
Characteristics of recent tsunami deposits, with the knowledge we have about the events that caused them, give us ways to recognize ancient deposits of this type and infer characteristics of those ancient tsunamis as well.
PDF In-place oil shale resources examined by grade in the major basins of the Green River Formation, Colorado, Utah, and Wyoming [More info]
We estimated a total of 4.285 trillion barrels of oil in-place in the oil shale of this area using a geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF In-place oil shale resources in the saline-mineral and saline-leached intervals, Parachute Creek Member of the Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Colorado [More info]
We estimated 920 and 352 billion barrels of oil are potentially recoverable from oil shale resources using oil-yield cutoffs of 15 and 25 gallons per ton, respectively.
PDF Integrated geologic, geochemical, and geophysical studies of Big Bend National Park, Texas [More info]
Coordinated studies of the effect of historical mining for mercury, origin and composition of metals in groundwaters and surface waters, history of volcanic and intrusive activity, and the complex geological history of this area.
PDF Integrated monitoring of ecological conditions in wetland-upland landscapes [More info]
Landscapes of interwoven wetlands and uplands offer a rich set of ecosystem goods and services. Changes in climate and land use can affect the value of those services. We study these areas to understand how they may be changing.
International Polar Year 2007-2008 [More info]
Scientific studies on the polar regions will receive greater attention during 2007-2008 as a result of USGS participation in the International Polar Year, coordinated in the US by the National Research Council, NSF, and NASA.
Introduction to geologic mapping [More info]
A brief summary of the principles and practices of geologic mapping.
PDF Introduction to potential fields: Gravity [More info]
Explanation of the Earth's gravitational field, emphasizing how USGS scientists measure gravity and portray these measurements on maps. Explains terminology of gravity anomaly maps and their relationship to the rock types and other geologic features.
PDF Introduction to potential fields: Magnetics [More info]
Explanation of the Earth's magnetic field and how USGS measures it. Defines magnetic anomaly, induced and remanent magnetism in rocks, and describes magnetic anomaly maps.
PDF Inventory and protection of salt marshes from risks of sea-level rise at Acadia National Park, Maine [More info]
Will salt marshes survive if sea level rises quickly? The answer depends on whether the areas surrounding them can allow salt marsh fauna and flora to migrate there. Local topography, both natural and manmade, is the main factor limiting this migration.
Investigating the Chesapeake Bay impact crater [More info]
Links to information on the formation and structure of Chesapeake Bay including online reports, recent field work, field work archives, cooperating agencies, bibliography, and links to articles about other terrestrial impact craters.
Isostasy [More info]
Explanation of the concept of isostasy as part of the Geophysical studies of the San Francisco Bay area.
PDF Kilauea--an Explosive Volcano in Hawaii [More info]
Explains how explosive eruptions occur here, shows the history of its eruptions, and describes the effects and hazards that accompany them.
Laboratory manual for x-ray powder diffraction [More info]
Report presents an abridged guide for laboratory technicians and students using X-ray powder diffraction methodology to study crystalline structure and to determine the mineralogy of finer grained sediments, especially clays.
Lake Tahoe Data Clearinghouse [More info]
This website is a gateway to information and data on Lake Tahoe with links to Lake Tahoe Initiative, geography, history, lake facts, GIS Data, DEM, DOQ, DLG imagery, bathymetry, satellite imagery, land cover, census, soils, pictures, and general maps.
Land Remote Sensing Program [More info]
Land Remote Sensing Program (LRS) provides a primary source of remotely sensed data and applications of land remote sensing, nationally and internationally.
Land subsidence and aquifer-system compaction in the Tucson Active Management Area, south-central Arizona, 1987-2005 [More info]
Results of ground-surface monitoring and borehole water table measurements document subsidence of the land surface correlative with changes in the ground water.
PDF Land-cover change research at the U.S. Geological Survey-assessing our nation's dynamic land surface [More info]
Estimates of change in major types of land use and land cover from 1973 to 2000 should help model potential future change as climate, population, public policy, and technology change.
PDF Landsat Data Continuity Mission [More info]
A partnership between NASA and USGS to assure continuous satellite imaging of the earth's surface that was begun 40 years ago.
Landsat Data Continuity Mission [More info]
Main site for Landsat missions, which provide information about land surface features of the earth. Includes imagery, links to general and technical information, ordering of data, and partners.
Landsat: A Global Land-Imaging Project [More info]
A visible, long-term record of natural and human-induced changes on the global landscape since 1972.
PDF Lidar postcards [More info]
Four postcards available for downloading and printing, illustrating the use of lidar (light detection and ranging) to construct high-resolution topographic and habitat maps.
PDF Limestone - A crucial and versatile industrial mineral commodity [More info]
Uses and availability of limestone and related commodities such as lime and portland cement. Hazards of limestone terranes due to erosion and sinkhole formation.
Long Island Sound [More info]
Long Island Sound interactive map with GIS datasets and sonar imagery.
Long Island Sound sidescan sonar mosaics [More info]
Sidescan sonar image, surficial geologic interpretation, and bathymetry of the Long Island Sound sea floor.
Louisiana continental slope [More info]
Louisiana continental slope interactive map with GIS datasets and sonar imagery.
Magnetic and gravity anomaly maps of West Virginia [More info]
Colored map in two parts and text in PDF files requiring Adobe Acrobat Reader 3.0 to view.
Maine Cooperative Snow Survey [More info]
The Maine Cooperative Snow Survey collects, interprets, and distributes information on the depth and water content of Maine's snowpack in the late winter and early spring, when the danger of flooding in Maine's rivers and streams is greatest.
Maine river ice monitoring system [More info]
The USGS in Augusta, Maine monitors river and ice conditions in areas of ice accumulation on the Kennebec River near Augusta providing real-time river stage data and real-time pictures of ice conditions at this location.
Major fossil groups [More info]
Discusses how fossils can be grouped and studied by size, habitat type, and phylogenetic groups. Shows how fossil classification groups are used to solve geologic problems at the USGS.
Mapping Partnership Office of Texas [More info]
Guide to the cooperative mapping programs in the state of Texas administered by the USGS Texas Mapping Partnership Office. Provides description of ongoing projects with links to USGS and cooperator datasets for the state of Texas.
Marine aggregate resources and processes [More info]
Regional studies mapping the seafloor sedimentary character and assessing marine sand and gravel resources around the United States, to inform beach nourishment and coastal restoration, benthic habitat and sediment transport studies
Marine reserves and biological habitats: Monterey Bay, California [More info]
Brief description of the research program to inventory the natural resources of Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary with links to cruises, and publications and products, including an internet map server, imagery, and geologic descriptions.
Mars Global Digital Dune Database; MC-1 [More info]
Distribution and morphological character of moderate to large size dune fields on Mars from 65 degrees North to the north pole.
Mass Wasting Following the 2002 Missionary Ridge Fire near Durango, Colorado, a Field Trip Guidebook [More info]
Guidebook with photos, maps, and diagrams explaining how forest fires have affected the likelihood of mass wasting, with discussions of steps taken to minimize future impacts.
Mass wasting presentation [More info]
Presentation explaining the various types of mass wasting, how they work, and how they differ from one another, with diagrams and photos.
Megafossils: vertebrates - technique of paleontological analyses [More info]
Brief description of vertebrates and use of their fossil bones and footprints to aid in dating strata in biostratigraphy and to decipher past climates and recreate ancient ecosystems in paleoecology, paleoclimatology and paleobiogeography.
Menlo Park Rock Magnetics Laboratory [More info]
Description of the work on paleomagnetism at the USGS Rock Magnetics Laboratory in Menlo Park, California with an overview of geomagnetic polar reversals, paleosecular variation, intensity, magnetic susceptibility, and rock magnetism analysis.
Mid-Continent Mapping Center [More info]
Overview of the Mid-Continent Mapping Center, Rolla, Missouri: a production, research, and data management facility for maps and digital cartographic data products, with links to directions, programs, mapping products, and visitors center.
Mineral deposit models [More info]
Publications by the USGS on mineral deposit models converted to digital files that can be downloaded. Some are *.pdf files requiring Adobe Acrobat Reader to view and download text
Mississippi Fan internet map [More info]
Mississippi River alluvial fan interactive map with GIS data and imagery depicting core sites, depositional and channel interpretation, Gloria and SeaMarc datasets.
PDF Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Overview [More info]
Includes 500 meter surface reflectance and vegetation indices, which can be used to study change in energy balance and vegetation over time.
Moderate-resolution sea surface temperature data and seasonal pattern analysis for the Arctic Ocean ecoregions [More info]
GIS data as grids, images, and shapefiles for monthly averages at 4km resolution from 1981 through 2009.
Moderate-resolution sea surface temperature data for the nearshore North Pacific [More info]
Downloadable monthly average SST data along the north Pacific coast in 4km grid cells for 29 years as shapefile, CSV, GIS grids, and Microsoft Access databases.
Mollusks [More info]
Information on mollusks and uses of the identification of fossil mollusks in the fields of biostratigraphy, geochronology, paleocoeanography, paleoecology and ecosystems history. Links to experts and related USGS projects.
PDF Monitoring and analysis of sand dune movement and growth on the Navajo Nation, southwestern United States [More info]
We combine long-term records from aerial photographs, detailed mapping using survey-grade GPS, and ground-based lidar with meteorological monitoring. Sand dune migration rates are currently about 35 meters per year.
PDF Monitoring floods and fires during the summer of 2011--The value of the Landsat satellite 40-year archives [More info]
Examples showing the use of historical satellite imagery for assessing the extent and severity of landscape hazards such as fires and floods.
PDF Mount St. Helens lidar [More info]
Poster available in two sizes for downloading and printing.
PDF Mount St. Helens, 1980 to now--what's going on? [More info]
Summarizes the eruptions of this spectacular volcano and the consequences for the surrounding landscape, explains how volcanoes like this form, and how we monitor their activity to mitigate hazards they pose.
Multibeam data and socio-economic issues in west-central San Francisco Bay [More info]
Webpage based on USGS Open File Report 98-139 links to information on the San Francisco Bay estuary to study dredge disposal effects, fish habitats, sediment transport, rock pinnacles and navigation, and consequences of a large oil spill.
Multibeam mapping of selected areas of the outer continental shelf, northwestern Gulf of Mexico: data, images, and GIS [More info]
Report provides the multibeam bathymetry and acoustic backscatter data, images, FGDC-compliant metadata, and GIS data from the 2002 surveys and 1997 USGS surveys of the Gulf.
Multibeam mapping of the Pinnacles region, Gulf of Mexico [More info]
Report on multibeam sonar imaging to produce bathymetric mapping of the reef tract known as The Pinnacles, northern Gulf of Mexico with links to images (ASCII or ArcInfo formats), data, metadata, ArcExplorer 2.0 project, and cruise report.
Multibeam mapping of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico [More info]
Georeferenced high-resolution mapping of bathymetry of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico of areas suspected to be critical benthic habitats for fisheries. Includes links to images, data, metadata, and TIFF image files.
Multielement geochemical dataset of surficial materials for the northern Great Basin [More info]
This report presents geochemical data generated during mineral and environmental assessments for the Bureau of Land Management in northern Nevada, northeastern California, southeastern Oregon, and southwestern Idaho, along with metadata and maps.
PDF Nahcolite Resources in the Green River Formation, Piceance Basin, Northwestern Colorado [More info]
Resource assessment of nahcolite, a mineral with a variety of industrial uses, which occurs with oil shale and is affected by the processes used to recover hydrocarbons from the rock.
National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards [More info]
The National Assessment of Coastal Change Hazards is a multi-year undertaking to identify and quantify the vulnerability of U.S. shorelines to coastal change hazards such as the effects of severe storms, sea-level rise, and shoreline erosion and retreat.
National assessment of coastal vulnerability to sea-level rise: preliminary results for the U.S. Pacific Coast [More info]
Report on the potential of coastal change due to future sea level rise using the coastal vulnerability index (C.V.I.) with two regional examples in San Francisco and Monterey Bay and Tillamook Head, Oregon, to Ocean Shores, WA.
National assessment of coastal vulnerability to sea-level rise: preliminary results of the U.S. Atlantic coast [More info]
Brief report on map showing the relative vulnerability of the Atlantic coast to changes due to future rise in sea level. Includes links to similar maps in Open-file report 2000-178 on the Pacific Coast and 2000-179 on the Gulf of Mexico Coast.
National assessment of mercury in aquatic ecosystems [More info]
Overview of three research programs including determining levels of mercury at selected sites in water, sediment and fish, mercury emissions into the atmosphere, and mercury cycling in the Everglades National Park, Florida.
National Cooperative Geologic Mapping Program [More info]
Geological mapping carried out by USGS in close cooperation with state, university, and federal partners. Includes general information about geological maps and mapping standards.
PDF National Enhanced Elevation Assessment at a glance [More info]
We asked what enhanced elevation data people need, what would be the costs and benefits, and what would be the best ways to obtain these data.
National Geologic Map Database Catalog [More info]
Search tool for locating print and online U.S. geologic maps by area, title, author, etc.
National Geologic Map Database Geologic Names Lexicon GEOLEX [More info]
Search tool for locating lithologic and geochronologic unit names for geologic studies.
National geologic studies of benthic habitats, northeastern United States : Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Region off Boston, Massachusetts [More info]
Geological research of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary sea floor are presented in the form of maps, posters, fact sheets, sonar images, and bottom photographs.
National Geomagnetism Program [More info]
Overview of USGS programs related to geomagnetism including observatories, data, program services, links to models, charts, and movies, program contacts, Intermagnet, Geomag, publications, and bibliographies.
National Geospatial Technical Operations Center [More info]
Organizational unit within USGS supporting acquisition and management of trusted geospatial data, products, and services needed for The National Map, the National Atlas, and related efforts.
National Hydrography Dataset (NHD) [More info]
Main page for National Hydrography Dataset (NHD), a comprehensive set of digital spatial data about surface water features, with links to references, data, software tools, applications, tutorials, technical support, and data maintenance.
National Ice Core Laboratory [More info]
The U.S. National Ice Core Laboratory (NICL) is a facility in the Denver Federal Center, Colorado, for long-term storage, curating, and studying ice cores recovered from the polar regions of the world with information on public tours.
National land cover characterization [More info]
Homepage for the National Land Cover Data (NLCD), a land cover classification scheme, for the United States based on data derived from Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data. Includes links to description, products, accuracy, and program partners.
Nationalatlas.gov - National Atlas of the United States [More info]
Portal to general information on the National Atlas of the United States with access for producing specialized maps and links to thematic maps including interactive maps, multimedia maps, map layers data warehouse, wall maps, and printable maps.
Nearshore Benthic Habitat Project [More info]
Homepage for the Nearshore Benthic Habitats Project for mapping geophysical characterization of the coastal sea floor to identify benthic fish and shellfish habitat with links to research cruises and preliminary results.
PDF Net Ecosystem Production (NEP) of the Great Plains, United States [More info]
Geographic analysis of the changes in storage and release of carbon in this large area as land use patterns, especially agriculture, have changed.
New England states aeromagnetic and gravity maps and data [More info]
Aeromagnetic surveys of New England, merged to form seamless grids across the state. Gravity anomaly data are provided as well. Data provided in a variety of formats.
North Cascades National Park geology, a mountain mosaic [More info]
Homepage for information on geology of the North Cascades National Park in the state of Washington. Includes links to geologic story, geologic field trips, geologic maps, plate tectonics, rocks and minerals, geologic time, and glossary.
Northern Gulf of Mexico ecosystem change and hazard susceptibility [More info]
Map interfaces and data in the area offshore Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama which was affected most by hurricane Katrina and, more recently, the oil spill.
PDF Occurrence, distribution, and concentrations of selected contaminants in streambed- and suspended-sediment samples collected in Bexar County, Texas, 2007-09 [More info]
Study showing which chemicals found in sediments were most common, with methods used and likely consequences of their high concentrations.
Oceanographic time series data [More info]
Oceanographic time-series data obtained from moored instruments, generally provided in NetCDF format.
Oil Pollution Impacts on Birds [More info]
A compilation of information, including reports, bibliographies, and data, on all aspects oil toxicity relevant to birds and other wildlife.
Online guide to the continental Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Raton basin, Colorado and New Mexico [More info]
Field guide describing the geology and paleontology of the continental Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary in the Raton basin, Colorado and New Mexico.
Organic metamorphism in the California petroleum basins: Chapter A - ROCK-EVAL and vitrinite reflectance [More info]
Part A of a complex report on the results of ROCK-EVAL and vitrinite reflectance analysis of a large sample base from more than 70 wells located in three oil-rich California petroleum basins in order to study the formation of oil deposits.
Organic metamorphism in the California petroleum basins: Chapter B - Insights from extractable bitumen and saturated hydrocarbons [More info]
Part B of a complex report on the results of geochemical analysis of 75 shale samples from the Los Angeles, Ventura, and San Joaquin Basins to gather observations relevant to exploration regarding the formation of oil deposits in these basins.
Ozone in our air - friend or foe? - depends on where [More info]
Article on ozone layer and ozone as a pollutant from the weekly newsletter Volcano Watch (Hawaiian Volcano Observatory) for August 20, 2001.
P-wave data from the Indian subcontinent [More info]
Compilation of P-wave data from the Indian subcontinent Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) profiles that used refraction and reflection techniques to provide an estimate of crustal thickness across the subcontinent.
Pacific Northwest geologic mapping and urban hazards [More info]
Overview of the Pacific Northwest Urban Corridor Geologic Mapping Program concerned with geology and urban hazards with links to online geologic maps, current research, publications, and contacts.
Pacific Northwest geologic mapping and urban hazards [More info]
Description of research underway in the Pacific Northwest including geologic mapping and urban hazards studies with links to geologic maps, publications, and data.
Pacific Seafloor Mapping Project [More info]
Homepage for the Pacific Sea floor Mapping Project with links to images, downloadable data, applications, fly-by movies, products, publications, and contacts for studies of San Francisco Bay, Puget Sound, Lake Tahoe, and other Pacific areas.
Pacific Walrus Response to Arctic Sea Ice Losses [More info]
Radio-tracking indicates that walruses will exploit sparse ice to maintain access to preferred foraging areas over the continental shelf.
Paleomagnetism analyses [More info]
Links to laboratory capabilities within the USGS for paleomagnetism and paleomagnetic and rock magnetic procedures for dating and determination of magnetic direction and polarity in samples with links to techniques, equipment, and contacts.
Paleontological analyses [More info]
Links to USGS capabilities in paleontological analyses of fossils such as mollusks, diatoms, palynomorphs, ostracodes, calcareous nannofossils, etc. Includes descriptive information, technique, equipment, and contacts for each fossil group.
Paleontology at the U.S. Geological Survey [More info]
USGS Paleontology home page documenting the wide diversity in paleontologic studies and applications within the USGS.
Paleontology selected online resources [More info]
Selection of links to web sites dealing with paleontology and related disciplines including links to museums, academia, societies, surveys, and groups of fossils.
Pennsylvania downloadable spatial data (GIS data files) [More info]
Pennsylvania digital data for watershed boundaries, county geology, and flood mapping in Arc/Info format compressed with gzip utility for downloading plus links to other sources of data.
Photo gallery of the Long Valley area, California [More info]
Selection of photographic images of the Long Valley area that illustrate the consequences of the past geologic history of the Sierra Nevada, Long Valley Caldera, the Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain, glaciation, and faulting.
Photo glossary of volcano terms [More info]
Illustrates and describes commonly used volcano-related terms.
Potential effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on avian habitats and populations in the Northern Great Plains [More info]
Report on effects of the increase of atmospheric carbon dioxide on plants and animals, especially birds, in the Great Plains including effects of carbon dioxide fertilization, ultraviolet radiation, climate change, and harmful effects on bird habitats.
Potential environmental impacts of quarrying stones in karst - a literature review [More info]
This report is the result of an extensive literature search to determine the state-of-the-knowledge regarding environmental impacts from quarrying carbonate rocks in karst formations to better use of karst resources in sustainable ways.
PDF Potential for technically recoverable unconventional gas and oil resources in the Polish-Ukrainian Foredeep, Poland [More info]
Using a performance-based geological assessment methodology, we estimated mean volumes of 1,345 billion cubic feet of potentially technically recoverable gas and 168 million barrels of technically recoverable oil and natural gas liquids here.
Potential hazards from future volcanic eruptions in the Long Valley -- Mono Lake Area, California [More info]
An introduction to the volcano hazards in the Long Valley area based on the past geologic history of the Long Valley Caldera and the Mono-Inyo Craters volcanic chain.
Preliminary geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area, Santa Barbara County, California [More info]
A geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain region in PDF format with data in GIS format (ArcInfo export, shapefile, and TIFF)
PDF Relations among geology, physiography, land use, and stream habitat conditions in the Buffalo and Current River systems, Missouri and Arkansas [More info]
PDF Remaining recoverable petroleum in giant oil fields of the Los Angeles Basin, southern California [More info]
We estimated between 3.2 and 5.6 billion barrels of additional oil may be recovered with existing technology in this area using a probabilistic geology-based assessment methodology.
PDF Response of Florida shelf ecosystems to climate change: from macro to micro scales [More info]
Study of the effects of ocean acidification on regional carbonate processes, changes in individual estuaries, and organism-level response.
PDF Review of flow rate estimates of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill [More info]
We assess the degree to which a consensus was reached on the flow rate of the well by comparing in situ observations with a time-dependent flow rate model derived from pressure readings taken after the Macondo well was shut in for the well integrity test.
River inventory and monitoring [More info]
Links to science programs on upper Midwest river inventory and monitoring with links to databases on macroinvertebrates, fisheries, vegetation, water quality, bathymetry, floodplain forest, wildlife, sediment, contaminants and nutrients.
Rocky Mountain Mapping Center [More info]
Home page for the USGS Rocky Mountain Mapping Center in Denver, CO with mapping activities in the western U.S. and links to research activities, products, mapping liaisons, and education.
Salinity variation in an estuary used for oyster cultivation in southeastern North Carolina during the passover of the eye of Hurricane Bertha [More info]
Review of a study monitoring changes in salinity in Alligator Bay, NC during a 1996 hurricane due to the influx of fresh and saltwater and the effect it would have on oyster aquaculture.
Satellite imagery: Lake Pontchartrain Basin and Gulf of Mexico [More info]
Report on satellite imagery collected by the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) on NOAA polar-orbiting weather satellites. Links are provided to imagery of north-central Gulf of Mexico and of the Lake Pontchartrain.
PDF Satellite map of Port-au-Prince, Haiti - 2010 - infrared [More info]
Post-earthquake map derived from 1:24,000-scale base maps incorporating high- and medium-resolution remotely sensed imagery following the 7.0 magnitude earthquake near the capital city of Port au Prince, Haiti, on January 12, 2010
PDF Satellite map of Port-au-Prince, Haiti - 2010 - natural color [More info]
Post-earthquake map derived from 1:24,000-scale base maps incorporating high- and medium-resolution remotely sensed imagery following the 7.0 magnitude earthquake near the capital city of Port au Prince, Haiti, on January 12, 2010
Satellite technologies detect uplift in the Yellowstone Caldera [More info]
Explanation of uplift in the land surface of the northern part of the Yellowstone caldera (12cm, about ~5 inches) that occurred between 1997 and 2003, including the scientific methods by which it was detected and analyzed.
PDF Scanning and georeferencing historical USGS quadrangles [More info]
We are scanning all scales and all editions of approximately 250,000 topographic maps published by USGS since the inception of the topographic mapping program in 1884. They will be available to the public at no direct cost.
Schlumberger soundings at the Amargosa Desert Research Site, Nevada [More info]
Report presenting the data, automatic interpretations, cross sections, and resistivity maps of direct current electrical soundings at the Amargosa Desert Research Site near Beatty, Nevada using a Schlumberger array.
PDF Science challenge questions and answers [More info]
Report giving a collection of 196 questions and answers on Earth and planetary sciences, such as volcanoes, earthquakes, hydrology, cartography, biology, and minerals for general audiences. Also information on obtaining an audio-CD copy.
PDF Science implementation of Forecast Mekong for food and environmental security [More info]
Research activities and data sources for this international effort to enhance U.S. engagement with countries of the lower Mekong River basin.
PDF Science supporting Gulf of Mexico oil-spill response, mitigation, and restoration activities-Assessment, monitoring, mapping, and coordination [More info]
Explains and shows data and expertise we were able to provide to Federal agencies and decision makers to help them deal with this difficult situation.
PDF Science-Based Strategies for Sustaining Coral Ecosystems [More info]
Explains the environmental factors that affect coral reef habitats and ecosystems, focusing on those that pose urgent problems.
Sea-floor mapping technology [More info]
Integrated shipboard data collection, processing, and archival system for digital sidescan sonar and seismic data used in mapping the inner continental shelf.
Sea-floor morphology between Año Nuevo and Santa Cruz, California [More info]
Report with preliminary sea floor map displaying submarine rock exposures found along the northern part of Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, extent based on side-scan sonar records, seismic-reflection records, and underwater video.
Seabed Observation and Sampling System (SEABOSS) [More info]
Link to PDF fact sheet describing the SEABASS system that collects seabed images and sediment samples in coastal regions.
Seamless geographic data distribution system [More info]
Online map system providing downloadable geospatial data, primarily NSDI framework themes (that is, general geographic data such as transportation, boundaries, hydrography, orthoimagery, land cover, and elevation).
Seismic properties of North America and the surrounding ocean basins [More info]
Presentation of maps of the seismic properties of North America and the surrounding ocean basins compiled from seismic refraction and reflection data, earthquake studies, and surface wave analyses showing crustal thickness and geologic provinces.
Selected references on fossils and paleontology [More info]
Bibliography of books, periodicals, fossil collecting guides, audiovisual aids, videos, filmstrips, charts, and posters which may be borrowed from libraries or purchased if still available.
Selected Western Region Mineral Resources on-line publications [More info]
Links to digital publications on minerals and mineral resources research in the western United States.
PDF Shoreline surveys of oil-impacted marsh in southern Louisiana, July to August 2010 [More info]
Locations of survey points, a photographic record of each site, field observations of vegetation cover and descriptions of oil coverage in the water and on plants, including measurements of the distance of oil penetration from the shoreline.
Sinkholes [More info]
Explains sinkhole formation and distribution, with special emphasis on their occurrence in Missouri
Sound waves [More info]
Monthly online newsletter covering coastal and marine science with links listed under sections titled fieldwork, meetings, outreach, and research.
PDF South Carolina coastal erosion study [More info]
USGS project to understand coastal evolution and modern beach behavior; to identify and model the physical processes affecting coastal ocean circulation and sediment transport; and to identify sediment sources and construct a regional sediment budget.
South Florida Ecosystem History Project [More info]
Project is designed to integrate studies from a number of researchers compiling data from terrestrial, marine, and freshwater ecosystems within south Florida. Links to publications, maps, posters, and data of studies.
Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP): find geologic maps [More info]
Download digital geologic databases produced by the Southern California Areal Mapping Project (SCAMP) or view SCAMP work in progress by clicking on 1:100,000-scale, 30x60 minute quadrangles.
Southern California Mapping Project (SCAMP) [More info]
Description of the SCAMP project to produce geologic and geophysical maps and reports that describe the geologic setting and geologic history of southern California.
Space Acquired Photography [More info]
Ordering and descriptive information for National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) imagery acquired by the USGS from Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, International Space Station, Space Shuttle, and Shuttle Large Format Camera missions.
PDF Space Acquired Photography [More info]
These photographs were taken by Gemini mission astronauts with handheld cameras or by the Large Format Camera (LFC) that flew on space shuttle Challenger in October 1984.
Spectroscopy of rocks and minerals, and principles of spectroscopy [More info]
Technical review of the principles of spectroscopy and its use in identifying minerals and other materials.
PDF St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center coral reef research [More info]
Describes ecological problems facing coral reef ecosystems and the research strategies we use to study the prevalence and severity of those problems.
Standardized National Vegetation Classification System [More info]
Document on the National Vegetation Classification Standard with information on applications, background, development, characteristics, nomenclature standards, relationship to other classifications, and how to do vegetation mapping.
Studies in Long Island Sound: geology, contaminants, and environmental issues [More info]
Description of Long Island Sound projects and links to research topics, data, publications, photos, and technology on sediment transport, sea floor mapping, contaminant sampling, sediment texture, and environmental issues.
Studies of polluted sediment offshore Los Angeles [More info]
Overview of studies of marine sediment on the continental shelf south of Los Angeles contaminated with DDT and PCBs from past sewage effluent discharges with links to research on Santa Monica Bay, Los Angeles Shelf and Palos Verdes Peninsula.
PDF Summary of Bed-Sediment Measurements Along the Platte River, Nebraska, 1931-2009 [More info]
Studies of the size of bed sediment along the length of a river through time show how the river channel will be affected by development or management efforts.
PDF Sutter Buttes-the lone volcano in California's Great Valley [More info]
Explains history and structure of this unusual geologic feature.
Tapestry of time and terrain: union of two maps, geology and topography [More info]
Colored map compiled by merging geologic and topographic maps of the United States through computer processing and enhancement with links to panoramic movie using QuickTime, descriptions of features, and a game entitled Puzzle of Regions.
Teacher's guide to the San Francisco Bay area geophysics maps (U.S. Geological Survey GP-1006 and GP-1007) [More info]
This publication (Open-File Report 95-479) is a teacher's guide to two U.S. Geological Survey maps that show gravity and magnetic data in contour form superimposed on a LANDSAT satellite image of the San Francisco Bay area.
PDF Terrestrial essential climate variables (ECVs) at a glance [More info]
Explains 16 distinct types of scientific information that are needed to understand climate change, including the specific parameters measured, why they are needed, who measures them, and the type and amount of information that are not yet available.
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Alabama [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Alaska [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Arkansas [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state.
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for California [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Colorado [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Florida [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Georgia [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state.
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Idaho [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Kentucky [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Louisiana [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Maine [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Maryland [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Massachusetts [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state.
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Minnesota [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Mississippi [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state.
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Missouri [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Montana [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for New Mexico [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for New York [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for North Carolina [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state.
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for North Dakota [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Oklahoma [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Oregon [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Rhode Island [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for South Dakota [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Tennessee [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Texas [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Virginia [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Washington [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: summary for Wisconsin [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The 3D Elevation Program: Summary of Program Direction [More info]
Summarizes the expected value over the next decade of the 3D Elevation Program for this state
PDF The Alaska Geochemical Database: v. 1.0 - Geologic Materials [More info]
Geochemical analyses of rocks, mineral separates, lake and stream sediment bulk samples, heavy-mineral concentrates, and soils collected by USGS in Alaska from 1962 through 2009.
The Chesapeake Bay bolide: modern consequences of an ancient cataclysm [More info]
Presentation that the location of Chesapeake Bay may have been predetermined by a Eocene bolide, an extraterrestrial body, impacting the Earth in the vicinity of the Delmarva Peninsula at high velocity and exploding to create a large crater.
PDF The Cottonwood Lake study area, a long-term wetland ecosystem monitoring site [More info]
Here we study effects of climate and groundwater on surface-water levels, the hydrological effects on wetland water chemistry, and the combined effects of climate, hydrology, and water chemistry on plant and animal communities of prairie pothole wetlands.
The crustal structure of China from deep seismic sounding profiles [More info]
Summary of results of Deep Seismic Sounding (DSS) profiles in China with links to a sample DSS profile, contour map of China with crustal thickness, crustal columns and maps showing profile locations and seismic data.
The Geologic Story of Colorado's Sangre de Cristo Range [More info]
Rock types, geologic structure, and the history of their formation in this mountain range.
The Geologic Time Spiral - A Path to the Past [More info]
Poster depicting the changes in the Earth and its life throughout its history.
The Great Ice Age [More info]
Booklet (PDF format) on the Pleistocene glaciations known as the Great Ice Age and the resulting geomorphological, climatic, and environmental changes that occurred on Earth during the period.
The National Map [More info]
Homepage describing The National Map, which will produce a seamless, continuously maintained set of public domain geographic base information, with links to map viewer, pilot projects, reports, fact sheets, and national atlas.
The National Map: reports [More info]
Fact sheets and reports on the National Map in HTML format or PDFs.
The National Map: topographic maps for the 21st century [More info]
Description of the The National Map project intended to provide a seamless, integrated, and continuously maintained set of geographic base information for easily accessible, up-to-date, accurate mapping of the United States.
The role of climate in estuarine variability [More info]
Article from American Scientist on study of the San Francisco Bay estuary as a component of the global climate system showing that natural fluctuations might be mistaken for anthropogenic trends affecting waterflow and salinity.
The sea-floor mapping facility at the U.S. Geological Survey Woods Hole Field Center, Woods Hole, Massachusetts [More info]
Fact sheet on the sea-floor mapping facility at Woods Hole describing state-of-the-art technology used to produce accurate geologic maps of the sea floor and reporting on its data-acquisition, data-processing, and archiving capabilities.
The U.S. Geological Survey Ocean Bottom Seismometer Facility [More info]
The Ocean Bottom Seismometer facility provides technical support for a variety of scientific investigations ranging from deep crustal structure to gas hydrate and surface sediments.
PDF The Yukon River Basin Active Layer Network: A cooperative project between the Yukon River Inter-Tribal Watershed Council and the U.S. Geological Survey [More info]
Monitoring soil temperature, soil moisture, air temperature, and overall thickness of the soil and sediment that is above the permafrost, therefore undergoing freeze-thaw cycles. Climate change may affect this active layer; we want to know how it does.
PDF Thermal Properties of Methane Gas Hydrates [More info]
This unusual form of hydrocarbons can alter the thermal properties of host sediments; the analysis presented here helps us understand how those sediments might behave under natural or human-induced changes in the environment.
Three-dimensional geologic maps and visualization [More info]
Techniques of computer-based representations of areal geology to construct three-dimensional geologic maps that retain all the information of traditional geologic maps while providing a more detailed picture of the subsurface.
Topographic maps [More info]
General information on topographic maps with links to topographic mapping, USGS topographic maps, digital raster graphics, how to find and order USGS maps, map revision, and map symbols.
Topographic Science [More info]
Explains and illustrates the types of topographic information USGS obtains, how we use this information, and how to obtain topographic data for your own work.
U.S. Atlantic East Coast [More info]
Atlantic East Coast interactive map with GIS datasets and sonar imagery.
U.S. Gulf of Mexico Shoreline Change [More info]
Interactive map of the Gulf of Mexico coast reflecting shoreline changes.
U.S. Pacific West Coast internet map server [More info]
Interactive map of the U.S. Pacific West Coast with data layers of Gloria sidescan data, multibeam backscatter and shaded relief imagery.
Unconsolidated aquifers of upstate New York [More info]
Information on aquifers in upstate New York which consist of unconsolidated deposits of sand and gravel that occupy major river and stream valleys or lake plains. Links to aquifer maps at scales 1:24,000 or 1:250,000 and cooperative publications.
Understanding our planet through chemistry [More info]
Site with a series of articles showing how chemists and geologists use analytical chemistry to determine the age of the Earth, determine Earth's history, predict volcanic eruptions, observe long-term atmospheric change and study pollution.
PDF Undiscovered Gas Resources in the Alum Shale, Denmark, 2013 [More info]
We estimated a mean undiscovered volume of 6.9 trillion cubic feet of natural gas in this geologic unit using a geology-based assessment methodology.
United States Antarctic Resource Center [More info]
Description of the Antarctic Resources Center and links to its workshops and archives of Antarctic maps, charts, satellite images, and photographs produced by the member nations of the Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR).
Unsaturated-Zone Flow Project [More info]
Overview of research to measure, predict, and understand the flow of water through soil and rock between the land surface and the water table with links to field sites, laboratory methods, theoretical developments, publications, and personnel.
PDF Use of Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to Obtain High-Resolution Elevation Data for Sussex County, Delaware [More info]
Methods and techniques used to collect and process LiDAR elevation data, the generation of the digital elevation model (DEM) and the 2-foot contours, and the quality-assurance procedures and results.
PDF Use of Semipermeable Membrane Devices (SPMDs) in Petroleum Polluted Waters [More info]
Provides a brief discussion of issues surrounding the use and capabilities of SPMDs, which can be used in monitoring petroleum spills.
PDF USGS Alaska State Mosaic [More info]
Using 172 Scenes from the Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics 2001 collection geometrically and radiometrically aligned, we produced seamless, relatively cloud-free image of the entire state.
USGS East-coast sediment analysis: analysis, procedures, database and georeferenced displays [More info]
Grain-size analysis of marine sediments of the U.S. eastern coast with sampling and lab methods, surficial sediment database in three formats (Excel, Dbase IV, ASCII), and use of geographic mapping tools for visualizing sediment data layers.
PDF USGS EDMAP Program-Training the Next Generation of Geologic Mappers [More info]
How to apply for funding for students to complete geologic mapping projects, with a list of universities who have participated in the program.
USGS Geography Products [More info]
USGS mapping sciences page containing links describing cartographic and geographic products and programs. The information products are available in printed and digital formats.
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