A general approach for evaluating of the coverage, resolution, and representation of streamflow monitoring networks
Streamflow monitoring networks provide information for a wide range of public interests in river and streams. A general approach to evaluate monitoring for different interests is developed to support network planning and design. The approach defines three theoretically distinct information metrics (coverage, resolution, and representation) based on the spatial distribution of a variable of interest. Coverage is the fraction of information that a network can provide about a variable when some areas are not monitored. Resolution is the information available from the network relative to the maximum information possible given the number of sites in the network. Representation is the information that a network provides about a benchmark distribution of a variable. Information is defined using Shannon entropy where the spatial discretization of a variable among spatial elements of a landscape or sites in a network indicates the uncertainty in the spatial distribution of the variable. This approach supports the design of networks for monitoring of variables with heterogeneous spatial distributions (“hot spots” and patches) that might otherwise be unmonitored because they occupy insignificant portions of the landscape. Areas where monitoring will maintain or improve the metrics serve as objective priorities for public interests in network design. The approach is demonstrated for the streamflow monitoring network operated by the United States Geological Survey during water year 2020 indicating gaps in the coverage of coastal rivers and the resolution of low flows.
|A general approach for evaluating of the coverage, resolution, and representation of streamflow monitoring networks
|Christopher Konrad, Scott W. Anderson
|Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
|USGS Publications Warehouse
|Washington Water Science Center
The issue: National interests in water information are important but challenging to incorporate into planning and operation of a monitoring network driven by local information needs. These interests include an understanding of the spatial variability in water availability across the United States, anthro-physical factors including climate and land use that affect water availability, and federal...