Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Field evaluation of an improved solid TFM formulation for use in treating small tributary streams

May 31, 2021

A solid lampricide formulation containing 23% 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) as the active ingredient was developed in the mid-1980s for use in small tributaries of dendritic streams during routine treatments to kill larval sea lamprey. This TFM bar formulation was designed to use a matrix of commercially prepared surfactants that would dissolve and slowly release their TFM payload over an 8–10-hour period. Although this formulation has proven useful, several matrix surfactants have been discontinued, resulting in the need to reformulate the TFM bar multiple times. Maintaining acceptable performance of the TFM bars while reformulating has been challenging. As a result, an experimental surfactant-free tableted TFM formulation was developed as a potential TFM bar replacement. Release of TFM from the tablet formulation was evaluated in four independent experimental applications made over varied substrates in three small tributaries of the Ford River (Delta County, Michigan). For each tributary, TFM release from tablets was modeled using exponential decay curves and the time required to release 25, 50, 75 and 90% of the TFM tablets was calculated. Differences in water-quality properties were detected using one-way analysis of variance tests, and post-hoc Tukey Honest Significant Difference tests were used to determine which water-quality properties differed among the trials. The influences of water temperature and water velocity on the release of TFM from the tablets has been previously reported; however, in this study substrate type also appeared to be an indicator of TFM release. In this study the performance of the TFM tablets appeared acceptable; however, it may be beneficial to conduct additional investigations to determine storage stability and handling durability as well as to identify potential challenges with mass production.

Publication Year 2021
Title Field evaluation of an improved solid TFM formulation for use in treating small tributary streams
Authors James A. Luoma, Nicholas Robertson, Justin Schueller, Nicholas A. Schloesser, Todd Johnson, Todd J. Severson, Matthew J Meulemans, Erica Muelemans
Publication Type Report
Publication Subtype Other Government Series
Index ID 70222466
Record Source USGS Publications Warehouse
USGS Organization Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center