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Landsat Collection 2 Level-2 Science Products

Landsat Collection 2 includes scene-based global Level-2 surface reflectance and surface temperature science products.

Return to Collection 2 Overview

Go to Collection 2 Level-1 Information 

Example of the Landsat 8 Collection 2 products
Left: Landsat 8 Collection 2 level-1 top of atmosphere reflectance image, center: Landsat 8 Collection 2 level-2 atmospherically corrected surface reflectance image, and right: Landsat 8 Collection 2 level-2 surface temperature image for an area over the Sapta Koshi River in Bairawa, Nepal (path 140 row 41) acquired on May 3, 2013.
CEOS ARD Compliance Stamp Logo
Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Analysis Ready Data (ARD) compliance stamp logo. This internationally-recognized certification recognizes satellite data that have been processed to a minimum set of requirements and organized into a structure that allows for immediate analysis with minimum user effort and interoperability both through time and with other datasets. Image used with permission by CEOS.


Landsat Level-2 science products are generated from Collection 2 Level-1 inputs that meet the <76 degrees Solar Zenith Angle constraint and include the required auxiliary data inputs to generate a scientifically viable product.

Landsat 8/9 Operational Land Imager (OLI) surface reflectance products are generated using the Land Surface Reflectance Code (LaSRC) algorithm (Version 1.5.0). Landsat 4-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) surface reflectance products are generated using the Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) algorithm (Version 3.4.0).

Landsat 4-9 surface temperature products are generated using the Landsat surface temperature algorithm (Version 1.3.0), developed in cooperation with the Rochester Institute of Technology and NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

Surface Reflectance

Surface reflectance (unitless) measures the fraction of incoming solar radiation that is reflected from the Earth's surface to the Landsat sensor. The LEDAPS and LaSRC surface reflectance algorithms correct for the temporally, spatially and spectrally varying scattering and absorbing effects of atmospheric gases, aerosols, and water vapor, which is necessary to reliably characterize the Earth’s land surface. 

Collection 2 Surface Reflectance Enhancements
  Collection 2 Surface Reflectance Collection 1 Surface Reflectance

(on demand, U.S. ARD)
Fill Value 0 -9999
Scaling Factor 0.0000275 + -0.2 0.0001
Data Type Unsigned 16 bit integer Signed 16 bit integer
Valid Range 1-65455 0-10000
Quality Band L1 QA_Pixel





Visit the Landsat Collection 2 Surface Reflectance webpage for additional information and documentation.

Surface Temperature

Surface Temperature measures the Earth’s surface temperature (units Kelvin) and is an important geophysical parameter in global energy balance studies and hydrologic modeling. Surface temperature is also useful for monitoring crop and vegetation health, and extreme heat events such as natural disasters (e.g., volcanic eruptions, wildfires), and urban heat island effects.

Note: A surface temperature product cannot be generated if auxiliary data is missing.  Please refer to the Atmospheric Auxiliary Data and Constraints and Caveats sections on Landsat Collection 2 Surface Temperature for more specifics about the required data needed in order to create an surface temperature product. 

Collection 2 Surface Temperature Enhancements
  Collection 2 Surface Temperature Collection 1 Surface Temperature

(on demand, U.S. ARD)
Fill Value 0 -9999
Scaling Factor 0.00341802 + 149.0 0.1
Data Type Unsigned 16-bit integer Signed 16-bit integer
Valid Range 1-65535 1500-3730

Reanalysis Source
GEOS-5 FP-IT (2000-present)

MERRA-2 (1982-1999)
Quality Band L1 QA_Pixel





Visit the Landsat Collection 2 Surface Temperature webpage for additional information and documentation.


The following metadata file specifications are included in Collection 2 products to facilitate consistency, machine-to-machine scripting and rapid querying of the Landsat archive:

  • Material Library File (MTL) (Object Description Language-based) format (currently offered)
  • Extensible Markup Language (XML)

Atmospheric Auxiliary Data

Landsat Level-2 surface reflectance and surface temperature processing require atmospheric auxiliary data input from external USGS data sources. USGS retrieves data from the data source and extracts parameters specific to Landsat Collection 2 Level-2 processing. These subsets are available for download for users who wish to perform Level-2 processing. It is not necessary for users to download atmospheric auxiliary data to use the Collection 2 Level-2 products.

Visit the Landsat Collection 2 Atmospheric Auxiliary page for more information about the datasets used in Collection 2 Level-2 processing.

Data Availability and Access

The USGS Landsat no-cost and open data policy remains intact since its inception in 2008. Landsat 4-9 Collection 2 Level-2 scene-based data are available to download from EarthExplorer. The LandsatLook Viewer can be used to visualize surface reflectance data. 

Visit this Landsat Data Access web page to discover how to search and download all Landsat products from USGS data portals.

Landsat 1-5 Level-2 Multispectral Scanner surface reflectance products will become available upon the maturity of an operational atmospheric compensation algorithm which satisfies the USGS Landsat program requirements.

Collection 1 based products, U.S. Landsat ARD and Level-3 data processing and downloads will remain available through December 21, 2022

Landsat Collection 2 Known Issues

The Landsat Collection 2 Known Issues page provides information about artifacts found in Landsat Collection 2 data products and attempts to make recommendations on how users can make corrections. 

Landsat Collection 2 Reprocessing Events

Occasionally, select Landsat scenes must be reprocessed. Please visit the Collection 2 Reprocessing Events web page to learn more about what scenes have been reprocessed.

Collection 2 Level-2 Product Generation Time Frames

Level-2 Surface Reflectance and Surface Temperature products are typically available within 24-72 hours after a scene has been processed into Tier 1 or Tier 2: 

  • For Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS, it takes approximately 14-16 days to process to a Tier 1 or Tier 2 product while refined TIRS instrument line of sight model parameters are applied to Real-Time scenes.
  • For Landsat 9 OLI/TIRS it takes approximately 4-6 hours to process to a Tier 1 or Tier 2 product and approximately 3 days to process to a Level-2 product

Please refer to the Landsat Collection 2 Product Generation Timeline for a visual view of the time frames described above.  


Users are encouraged to reference the COG Data Format Control Book (DFCB) for a detailed description of the image, product and metadata files. Together with the instrument specific Level-1 DFCBs, the COG DFCB provides the user with a comprehensive overview of the new Landsat Collection 2 products.

Landsat Cloud Optimized GeoTIFF (COG) Data Format Control Book

Level-1 Documents

Level-2 Documents

Level-2 Digital Object Identifiers (DOI)