Landsat Collections

Landsat Collection 2 Atmospheric Auxiliary Data

Landsat Collection 2 Level-2 surface reflectance and surface temperature data processing requires atmospheric auxiliary data from multiple external sources. The required data is extracted from the source and the components specific to generating a Collection 2 Level-2 product are repackaged and are  available to download. 

Return to Landsat Collection 2 Overview

 

Please note: it is not necessary for users to download the atmospheric auxiliary data for use with Collection 2 Level-2 products. These data are available for users wanting to generate custom Level-2 products using the Collection 2 surface reflectance and surface temperature algorithms.

 

Landsat 4-5 TM and Landsat 7 ETM+ Surface Reflectance products are generated using the Landsat Ecosystem Disturbance Adaptive Processing System (LEDAPS) algorithm developed through a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Making Earth System Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) grant by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) and the University of Maryland (Masek et al., 2006).

Landsat 8 OLI Surface Reflectance product is generated using the Land Surface Reflectance Code (LaSRC), which makes use of the coastal aerosol band to perform aerosol inversion tests, uses auxiliary climate data from MODIS, and uses a radiative transfer model.  (Vermote et al., 2016).

The Landsat 4-8 Surface Temperature product is generated from Landsat Collection 2 Level-1 thermal infrared bands, Top of Atmosphere (TOA) reflectance, TOA Brightness Temperature, Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Database (GED) data, ASTER Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data, and atmospheric profiles of geopotential height, specific humidity, and air temperature extracted from Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Model , Version 5, Forward Processing Instrument Teams (FP-IT) (for acquisitions from 2000 to present) or Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Version 2 (MERRA-2) (for acquisitions from 1982 to 1999).

 

Collection 2 Atmospheric Auxiliary Data Inputs

The table below lists the atmospheric auxiliary dataset source, the corresponding algorithm/sensor, purpose, and the download location used in the generation of Collection 2 Level-2 products. Each dataset includes a link to more infromation described below. Auxiliary data available from EarthExplorer will be available for download upon public release of Collection 2 in 2020.

Additional technical information about these auxiliary data along with examples of file structures can be found in the Landsat Atmospheric Auxiliary Data Format Control Book

Collection 2 Surface Reflectance Atmospheric Auxiliary Data Inputs

Dataset Source Algorithm/Sensor Purpose Download Source Notes
Climate Modeling Grid Digital Elevation Model (CMGDEM)
More Information
LEDAPS, LaSRC
Landsat 4-8, 
Landsat 9 when available
Surface Reflectance Landsat Web Site: 
Download Now
Static file, is not updated or changed
Landsat 8-9 Ratio Map 
More Information
LaSRC
Landsat 8,  Landsat 9 when available
Aerosol retrieval Landsat Web Site:
Download Now
Static file, is not updated or changed
Landsat Data Continuity Mission Look Up Tables (LDCMLUT) (4 files)
More Information
LaSRC
Landsat 8,  Landsat 9 when available
Surface Reflectance Landsat Web Site:
Download Now
Static file, is not updated or changed
MODIS Fused: Daily Surface Reflectance and Daily Aerosol MODIS Climate Modeling Grids, Fused
More Information
LaSRC
Landsat 8,  Landsat 9 when available
Ozone and water vapor EarthExplorer
(Available in 2020)
 
National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Reanalysis 1
More Information
LEDAPS
Landsat 4-7
Surface pressure, precipitable water, air temperature EarthExplorer
(Available in 2020)
 
 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)
More Information
LEDAPS
Landsat 4-7
Ozone EarthExplorer
(Available in 2020)
 

Collection 2 Surface Temperature Atmospheric Auxiliary Data Inputs

Dataset Source Algorithm/Sensor Purpose Download Source Notes
Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Global Emissivity Data (GED)
More Information
Landsat 4-8, 
Landsat 9 when available
Emissivity EarthExplorer
(Available in 2020)
 
Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) Model, Version 5, Forward Processing Instrument Teams (FP-IT)
More Information
Landsat 7-8, 
Landsat 9 when available
Atmospheric aerosols EarthExplorer
(Available in  2020)
2000 – present acquisitions only
Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Version 2 (MERRA-2)
More Information
Landsat 4-7 Atmospheric aerosols EarthExplorer
(Available in 2020)
1982 – 1999 acquisitions only

 

Collection 2 Surface Reflectance Atmospheric Auxiliary Data Inputs

Climate Modeling Grid Digital Elevation Model (CMGDEM)
CMGDEM is a global elevation model used in the surface reflectance algorithms for Landsat 4-8 data. It is stored in Hierarchical Data Format Version 4 (HDF4) format. This file is static and is not updated, and is only available from this page. 

 

Landsat 8-9 Ratio Map 
This file of band ratio averages is used by the LaSRC algorithm for aerosol retrieval calculation in Landsat 8 surface reflectance processing.  It is derived from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data and gives an estimate of Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI). This file is static and not updated, and is only available from this page. 

 

Landsat Data Continuity Mission Look Up Tables (LDCMLUT)
The four look up tables contained in this file are used by the LaSRC algorithm in Landsat 8 surface reflectance processing. These files are static and not updated, and are only available from this page. 

  • ANGLE_NEW.hdf - contains scattering, view, and sun angles
  • RES_LUT_V3.0-URBANCLEAN-V2.0.hdf - contains intrinsic reflectance information
  • AERO_LUT_V3.0-URBANCLEAN-V2.0.ASCII -  contains spherical albedo information 
  • TRANS_LUT_V3.0-URBANCLEAN-V2.0.ASCII - contains transmission information

 

MODIS Fused
Water vapor and ozone data are extracted from two MODIS Climate Modeling Grids for use in the surface reflectance algorithm for Landsat 8 data: 

MODIS Aerosol Optical Thickness Daily Climate Modeling Grid (MOD09CMA and MYD09CMA): Global products generated daily. Pixels with cloud cover or high solar zenith angles are excluded. These products are in geographic projection with a 0.05 degree spatial resolution. Water vapor data are extracted from these products.

MODIS SR Daily Climate Modeling Grid (MOD09CMG and MYD09CMG): Global products generated daily. Pixels with cloud cover, high solar zenith angle, and high blue reflectance are excluded. These products are in geographic projection with a 0.05 degree spatial resolution. Ozone data is extracted from these products.

The data are combined to create a single daily Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) file that contains only water vapor and ozone values. MODIS Terra data are used, if available for both water vapor and ozone data. When MODIS Terra data are not available, MODIS Aqua data are used to fill in missing values (if available). If MODIS Terra or Aqua data are both unavailable, fill values are generated by interpolation. The generated file contains a Scientific Data Set (SDS) for ozone data (unsigned 8-bit integers), an SDS for water vapor data (unsigned 16-bit integers), and a "wherefrom" SDS (8-bit unsigned integers) to identify if the pixel is filled from Terra data, Aqua data, or "none" for interpolated values. The output file name is "L8ANC<yyyy><doy>.hdf_fused".

MODIS Fused data will be available to download from EarthExplorer. 

 

National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR)  Reanalysis 1
The NOAA NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1 products are annual Network Common Data Form (netCDF) files, which contain the daily values for each surface pressure, precipitable water, and air temperature. NCEP data are used in the surface reflectance algorithm for Landsat 4-7 data. The NCEP products are repackaged into daily HDF files that contain SDS for surface pressure, precipitable water, and air temperature, stored as floating-point values. The output file name is "REANALYSIS_<yyyy><doy>.hdf". 

NCEP/NCAR Reanalysis 1 data will be available to download from EarthExplorer. 

 

Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS)
Ozone data products are available for the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) instruments and for the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), and are used in the surface reflectance algorithm for Landsat 4-7 data.  Different sources are used for different date ranges: 

Nimbus7 TOMS:        October 24, 1978 to May 6, 1993
Meteor3 TOMS:          August 22, 1991 to Nov 24, 1994
Earth Probe TOMS:   July 6, 1996 to Dec 14, 2005
Aura OMI:                   July 15, 2004 to present

The ozone products are repackaged into daily HDF files that contain ozone data stored as 16-bit integers. The output files are named TOMS_<yyyy><doy>.hdf.

TOMS data will be available to download from EarthExplorer. 

 

Collection 2 Surface Temperature Atmospheric Auxiliary Data Inputs

Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) Emissivity Data
ASTER is an instrument on the Terra satellite. ASTER Global Emissivity Dataset (GED) is a global, 90-meter spatial resolution emissivity map of the Earth’s non-frozen land surfaces at different wavelengths in the thermal infrared spectrum. ASTER GED bands 13, 14, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) are used in the surface temperature algorithm for Landsat 4-8 data.

ASTER Emissivity data will be available to download from EarthExplorer. 

 

Goddard Earth Observing System Model, Version 5, Forward Processing (GEOS-5 FP-IT) 
A system of models integrated using the Earth System Modeling Framework that begins in 2000.  GEOS-5 FP-IT data are used in the surface temperature algorithm for Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 data starting in 2000 to present. GEOS-5 FP-IT data are updated every three hours and are delivered in 8 files per day. New files that contain the subset of the GEOS-5 FP-IT data are created for Landsat Level-2 surface temperature processing. 

GEOS-5-FP-IT data will be available to download from EarthExplorer. 

 

Modern Era Retrospective analysis for Research and Applications Version 2 (MERRA-2)
MERRA-2 is a NASA atmospheric reanalysis that provides data beginning in 1980. MERRA-2 is the first long-term global reanalysis to assimilate space-based observations of aerosols and represent their interactions with other geophysical processes in the climate system.

MERRA-2 data will be available to download from EarthExplorer.