Geologic Processes involve interactions of the atmosphere, biosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere. The USGS defines Geologic Processes as all types of processes affecting geologic structures. These include: diagenesis, Earthquakes, erosion, glaciation, hydrothermal processes, isostacy, land subsidence, liquefaction, metamorphism, sediment transport, sedimentation, tectonic processes, volcanic activity, Earth tides, deformation, soil formation, magnetic storms, and mass wasting. Earth's ecosystems are affected by hazards to life and property caused by such phenomenon as volcanic eruptions, Earthquakes, Earth movements and tsunamis. Evaluation of these processes requires a variety of spatial, spectral, temporal and topographic data across a wide range of resolutions and areal extents.
Atmospheric Processes involve interactions of the atmosphere, biosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere. Atmospheric Processes are the result of complex Earth-Sun interactions and include weather and climate. Atmospheric Processes are the driving force behind global energy patterns. The term atmosphere comes from the Greek words atmos meaning vapor and sphaira meaning sphere. Earth's atmosphere contains 78.08% nitrogen, 20.95% oxygen, a variable amount (average around 1%) water vapor, 0.93% argon, 0.038% carbon dioxide, and traces of hydrogen, helium, other "noble" gases, and volatile pollutants. Some of these pollutants are the result of anthropogenic processes. Oxygen is used by most organisms for respiration. Carbon dioxide is used by vascular plants, algae, and cynaobacteria for photosynthesis. Atmospheric Processes include energy transfer between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere in a variety of ways, including radiation, conduction, and convection; boundary layer processes in the lower atmosphere, where the atmosphere 'feels' the influence of Earth's surface; and cloud and radiation studies.
Ocean Processes involve interactions of the atmosphere, biosphere, cryosphere, hydrosphere, and lithosphere. Ocean Processes are defined by the USGS to include recurrent natural changes that are physical, biological, or chemical, actively affecting the seas and oceans. Among these are ocean circulation, ocean currents, tides, ocean waves, sea ice, coastal erosion and deposition, and marine pollution. The key to study of the Ocean Processes is the collection of a well documented suite of oceanographic images, collected with requisite sampling rates and calibration. This is the premise of the GFL.