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Every year in the United States, natural hazards threaten lives and livelihoods and result in billions of dollars in damage. We work with many partners to monitor, assess, and conduct targeted research on a wide range of natural hazards so that policymakers and the public have the understanding they need to enhance preparedness, response, and resilience.Read Our Science Strategy
Costs and consequences of natural hazards can be enormous; each year more people and infrastructure are at risk. We develop and apply hazards science to help protect U.S. safety, security, and economic well being. These scientific observations, analyses, and research are crucial for the Nation to become more resilient to natural hazards.Read Our Science Strategy
Estuaries are dynamic environments where complex interactions between the atmosphere, ocean, watershed, ecosystems, and human infrastructure take place. They serve as valuable ecological habitat and provide numerous ecosystem services and recreational opportunities. However, they are modified by physical processes such as storms and sea-level rise, while anthropogenic impacts such as nutrient...
Space Weather Events of August 25, 2018
Space Weather Events of June 23, 2015
Space Weather Events of March 17, 2015
Space Weather Events of September 12, 2014
Space Weather Events of February 19, 2014
Space Weather Events of October 1, 2012
Space Weather Events of June 1, 2013
Space Weather Events of January 23, 2012
Space Weather Events of September 26, 2011
Space Weather Events of February 14, 2011
The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) makes detailed predictions (meter-scale) over large geographic scales (100s of kilometers) of storm-induced coastal flooding and erosion for both current and future sea-level rise (SLR) scenarios. CoSMoS v3.0 for Southern California shows projections for future climate scenarios (sea-level rise and storms) to provide emergency responders and...
The objective was to compare an urbanized wetland with limited sediment supply (Seal Beach) with a less modified marsh (Pt. Mugu) with fluvial sediment supply. Marine temperature, conductivity, pressure sensors, optical turbidity sensors and acoustic velocity meters were deployed on bottom platforms to quantify the conditions in the water column.
Oceanographic, Atmospheric and Water-Quality Measurements Sandwich Town Neck Beach, Massachusetts, 2016
These measurements provide information about waves, tides, and overwash during a winter storm in January 2016; about waves, tides, currents, and water properties between February and May, 2016; and about waves and tides between May and June 2016, during a period that overlaps with offshore bathymetric surveys.
Oceanographic, Atmospheric and Water-Quality Measurements Sandwich Town Neck Beach, Massachusetts, 2017
These measurements provide short-duration datasets of waves, tides, and overwash from portable pressure sensors deployed on the beach during major winter storms on these dates: January 23-26; February 9-10; February 13-15; and March 13-15, 2017. Longer datasets were obtained from sensors on a platform deployed on the seafloor north of the beach in seven meters depth.
Oceanographic and Water Quality Measurements Collected in Grand Bay, Alabama/Mississippi, August 2016 – January 2017
Suspended-sediment transport is a critical element governing the geomorphology of tidal marshes and estuaries. Marshes rely both on organic material and inorganic sediment deposition to maintain their elevation relative to sea-level. Additionally, horizontal marsh extent is altered by lateral erosion and accretion.
The Massachusetts Office of Coastal Zone Management launched the Shoreline Change Project in 1989 to identify erosion-prone areas of the coast. The shoreline position and change rate are used to inform management decisions regarding the erosion of coastal resources.
Geospatial Data Layers of Shallow Geology, Sea-Floor Texture, and Physiographic Zones from the Inner Continental Shelf of Martha’s Vineyard from Aquinnah to Wasque Point, and Nantucket from Eel Point to Great Point
Geologic, sediment texture, and physiographic zone maps characterize the sea floor south and west of Martha's Vineyard and north of Nantucket, Massachusetts. These maps were derived from interpretations of seismic-reflection profiles, high-resolution bathymetry, acoustic-backscatter intensity, bottom photographs, and surficial sediment samples.
Elevation of marsh units in Fire Island National Seashore and Central Great South Bay salt marsh complex, New York
Elevation distribution in the Fire Island National Seashore and Central Great South Bay salt marsh complex is given in terms of mean elevation of conceptual marsh units defined by Defne and Ganju (2018). The elevation data is based on the 1-meter resolution Coastal National Elevation Database (CoNED).
Conceptual marsh units for Fire Island National Seashore and central Great South Bay salt marsh complex, New York
The salt marsh complex of Fire Island National Seashore (FIIS) and central Great South Bay was delineated to smaller, conceptual marsh units by geoprocessing of surface elevation data. Flow accumulation based on the relative elevation of each location is used to determine the ridge lines that separate each marsh unit
Temporal hydrologic and chemical records from the Ox Bel Ha cave network within the coastal aquifer of the Yucatan Peninsula, from January 2015 to January 2016
Natural cave passages penetrating a coastal aquifer in the Yucatan Peninsula (Mexico) were accessed to investigate how regional meteorology and hydrology control methane dynamics in karst subterranean estuaries. Three field trips were carried out in January 2015, June 2015, and January 2016 to obtain year-long high-resolution temporal records of water chemistry and environmental parameters
This data release, which is part of the 2018 update, defines the position and elevation of the most seaward dune crest and toe along the Massachusetts coast as derived from 2013–14 lidar data. In the absence of a dune, the peak of the berm or the seaward edge of a bluff, headland, or hard structure (for example, a seawall, road, or parking lot) was chosen as a proxy for the dune crest.
High-resolution geophysical data collected in Lake Powell, Utah-Arizona, U.S. Geological Survey Field Activity 2017-049-FA
High-resolution geophysical mapping of Lake Powell in the Glen Canyon National Recreation Area in Utah and Arizona was conducted between October 8 and November 15, 2017, as part of a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Bureau of Reclamation to provide high-quality data needed to reassess the area-capacity tables for the Lake Powell reservoir.
Seabed maps showing topography, ruggedness, backscatter intensity, sediment mobility, and the distribution of geologic substrates in Quadrangle 6 of the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary Region offshore of Boston, Massachusetts
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's National Marine Sanctuary Program, has conducted seabed mapping and related research in the Stellwagen Bank National Marine Sanctuary (SBNMS) region since 1993.
Using information from recent earthquakes, improved mapping of active faults, and a new model for estimating earthquake probabilities, the 2014 Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities updated the 30-year earthquake forecast for California. They concluded that there is a 72 percent probability (or likelihood) of at least one earthquake of magnitude 6.7 or greater striking somewhere in
This map shows the location of and evidence for recent movement on active fault traces within the Hayward Fault Zone, California.
The maps in this archive display estimated intensities and ground motions for the largest earthquakes in the HayWired aftershock sequence. The aftershock sequence follows the HayWired M7.0 mainshock that is imagined to occur on April 18, 2018 along the Hayward Fault.These maps have been used in analyses of the HayWired scenario.
The HayWired scenario depicts a hypothetical M7.0 earthquake on California’s Hayward Fault. This site includes an interactive map showing fault traces and ShakeMap contours, information on the tectonic setting of the Hayward Fault and fault rupture history; and a USGS ShakeMap, which provides ground motion information for the HayWired scenario mainshock.
The seismic-landslide probability map covers the counties of Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, and Sonoma. The slope failures are triggered by a hypothetical earthquake with a moment magnitude of 7.0 occurring on April 18, 2018, at 4:18 p.m. on the Hayward Fault in the east bay part of California’s San Francisco Bay region.
Links to publications that contain maps of the sea floor or lake beds and the digital data used to create them.
This portal is a “go to” source for maps related to ocean and coastal mapping. Information is organized by geography or region, by theme, and by the year data was published.
Rupture model of the M5.8 Pawnee, Oklahoma earthquake from regional and teleseismic waveforms
The 2016 M5.8 Pawnee, Oklahoma earthquake is the largest earthquake to have been induced by wastewater disposal. We infer the coseismic slip history from analysis of apparent source time functions and inversion of regional and teleseismic P‐waveforms, using aftershocks as empirical Green's functions. The earthquake nucleated on the shallow part of...Moschetti, Morgan P.; Hartzell, Stephen H.; Herrmann, R. B.
Organic geochemical investigation of far‐field tsunami deposits of the Kahana Valley, O'ahu, Hawai'i
Far‐field tsunami deposits observed in the Kahana Valley, O'ahu, Hawai'i (USA), were investigated for their organic‐geochemical content. During short high‐energy events, (tsunamis and storms) organic and chemical components are transported with sediment from marine to terrestrial areas. This study investigates the use of anthropogenic based...Bellanova, Piero; Frenken, Mike; Richmond, Bruce M.; Schwarzbauer, Jan; La Selle, Seanpaul; Griswold, Frances; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Nelson, Alan R.; Reicherter, Klaus
Rayleigh wave ellipticity measurement uncertainty across the IRIS/USGS and New China Digital Seismograph Networks
Long-period Rayleigh wave horizontal to vertical amplitude (H/V) ratios at a station provide information about local earth structure that is complementary to phase velocity. However, a number of studies have observed that significant scatter appears in these measurements making it difficult to use H/V ratio measurements to resolve earth structure...Ringler, Adam T.; Wilson, David C.; Zürn, Walter; Anthony, Robert E.
Evaluation of temporally correlated noise in global navigation satellite system time series: Geodetic monument performance
Estimates of background noise of Global Positioning System‐derived time series of positions for 740 sites in the western United States are examined. These data consist of daily epochs of three components of displacements that are at least 9.75 years long within the interval between 2000 and 2018. We find that these time series have...Langbein, John; Svarc, Jerry L.
The compositions of the lunar crust and upper mantle: Spectral analysis of the inner rings of lunar impact basins
The innermost ring in impact basins exposes material originating from various depths, and can be used to study the composition of the lunar crust with depth. In this study, we conduct quantitative mineralogical analyses of the innermost ring in 13 lunar impact basins using reflectance data from the Kaguya Multiband Imager and...Lemelin, Myriam; Lucey, Paul G.; Miljković, Katarina; Gaddis, Lisa R.; Hare, Trent M.; Ohtake, Makiko
The Shumagin seismic gap structure and associated tsunami hazards, Alaska convergent margin
The potential for a major earthquake in the Shumagin seismic gap, and the tsunami it could generate, was reported in 1971. However, while potentially tsunamigenic splay faults in the adjacent Unimak and Semidi earthquake segments are known, such features along the Shumagin segment were undocumented until recently. To investigate margin structure...Detweiler, Shane T.; von Huene, Roland E.; Miller, John J.; Krabbenhoeft, Anne
The formation of gullies on Mars today
A decade of high-resolution monitoring has revealed extensive activity in fresh Martian gullies. Flows within the gullies are diverse: they can be relatively light, neutral or dark, colourful or bland, and range from superficial deposits to 10 m-scale topographic changes. We observed erosion and transport of material within gullies, new terraces,...Dundas, Colin M.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Diniega, Serina; Hansen, Candice J.; McElwaince, Jim N.
The flood lavas of Kasei Valles, Mars
Both the northern and southern arms of Kasei Valles are occupied by platy-ridged flood lavas. We have mapped these flows and examined their morphology to better understand their emplacement. The lavas were emplaced as high-flux, turbulent flows (exceeding 106 m3 s−1). Lava in southern Kasei Valles can be traced back up onto the...Dundas, Colin M.; Cushing, Glen E.; Kestay, Laszlo P.
How physics‐based earthquake simulators might help improve earthquake forecasts
Questions have persisted on the usefulness of physics‐based earthquake simulators with respect to forecasting earthquakes, due mostly to the inevitable assumptions, approximations, and uncertainties. Whether any model is reliable or trustworthy depends entirely on what questions we are asking of it, so the point of this article is to outline a...Field, Edward H.
Coseismic sackungen in the New Madrid seismic zone, USA
High‐resolution lidar reveals newly recognized evidence of strong shaking in the New Madrid seismic zone in the central United States. We mapped concentrations of sackungen (ridgetop spreading features) on bluffs along the eastern Mississippi River valley in northwestern Tennessee that likely form or are reactivated during large earthquakes. These...Delano, Jaime E.; Gold, Ryan D.; Briggs, Richard W.; Jibson, Randall W.
On the potential duration of the aftershock sequence of the 2018 Anchorage earthquake
Currently, an aftershock sequence is ongoing in Alaska after the magnitude 7.0 Anchorage earthquake of November 30, 2018. Using two scenarios, determined with observations as of December 14, 2018, this report estimates that it will take between 2.5 years and 3 decades before the rate of aftershocks decays to the rate of earthquakes that were...Michael, Andrew J.
Earthquakes induced by hydraulic fracturing are pervasive in Oklahoma
Wastewater disposal is generally accepted to be the primary cause of the increased seismicity rate in Oklahoma within the past decade, but no statewide analysis has investigated the contribution of hydraulic fracturing (HF) to the observed seismicity or the seismic hazard. Utilizing an enhanced seismicity catalog generated with multi‐station...Skoumal, Robert J.; Ries, Rosamiel; Brudzinski, Michael R.; Barbour, Andrew J.; Currie, Brian S.
This package is used to calculate coastal geomorphology variables along shore-normal transects. The calculated variables are used as inputs for modeling geomorphology using a Bayesian Network (BN).
iPlover was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center and the USGS Center for Integrated Data Analytics. It is used by trained and vetted personnel to record information about habitats on coastal beaches and he environment surrounding them.
Map showing the locations of all U.S. volcanoes with their threat category designated by color. Very high threat is red, high is orange, moderate is yellow, low is green, and very low is blue.
Displaying fixed bin options (left) for rates of change for an example dataset (LRR, EPR, WLR), and scaled to data (right) (NSM).
The beach-dependent shorebirds project at the Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center models current and future habitat availability for nesting shorebirds in an effort to map current and likely future habitat availability on a range of sites along the U.S. Atlantic coast. Sites include beaches with minimal human-presence, such Cedar Island shown here off of the...
Data visualization with (A) fixed and (B) scaled options applied. Examples of NSM and SCE are also displayed (C and D respectively). The data itself has not changed – only the scaling and statistic selected through the DSAS Data Visualization tool.
Map of the Martha’s Vineyard and Nantucket study sites outlined in red.
Image showing a collage of examples of multi-channel and single-channel seismic data collected by the USGS, seismic equipment deployed from a research vessel, and seismic equipment on a research vessel. These data are critical to the CMG Program as they define the geology in marine and coastal environments.
Mount Shasta, a steep-sided Cascade Range stratovolcano in Northern California, looms above Little Glass Mountain, a thick obsidian flow erupted from the Medicine Lake shield volcano about 1,000 years ago. These are just two of the young volcanic areas monitored by the USGS California Volcano Observatory. USGS photo.
A USGS electronics technician performs maintenance on a ShakeAlert Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) sensor station, located in the San Francisco Bay Area. ShakeAlert station components include strong-motion accelerometers, solar panel and battery power systems, and communications & telemetry equipment for communication with the wider ShakeAlert network.
Department of Interior UAS pilots from left to right – Elizabeth Pendleton (USGS, Woods Hole, MA), Colin Milone (Office of Aviation Services, AK), John Vogel (USGS; Flagstaff, AZ), Sandy Brosnahan (USGS, Woods Hole, MA), Brandon Forbes (USGS; Tuscon, AZ), Chris Holmquist-Johnson...
SEABed Observation and Sampling System (SEABOSS) (center image) and the MiniSEABOSS (right) designed for rapid, inexpensive, and effective collection of seabed imagery (photographs and video) as well sediment samples from the coastal/inner-continental shelf regions. Images from coastal Massachusetts show purple algae-encrusted cobbles and boulders covered with sea-stars (...
3D Image of a multi-channel seismic (MCS) line showing gas (blue/green) migrating up through fractures in the subsurface, culminating in a 600 meter tall plume of methane gas in the water column that was captured using a Simrad EK60 split beam echo sounder. Background bathymetry was downloaded from USGS Open-File Report 2012-1266 (...
Core players in “Expanding Pacific Research and Exploration of Submerged Systems” (EXPRESS) held a planning workshop at the USGS Pacific Coastal and Marine Science Center in Santa Cruz, California, November 29–30.
New Products Provide an Interactive Guide to Global and Regional Sea Level Rise Scenarios for the United States
A geo-narrative and accompanying data viewer provide users a new way to visualize 2017 sea-level rise scenarios originally generated for the National Climate Assessment (NCA).
The Anchialine Biogeochemistry Research Team has returned to the Yucatan Peninsula Mexico to continue investigating how life persists within underwater coastal caves beneath the tropical forest.
A magnitude 7.0 earthquake struck north of Anchorage, Alaska, on November 30, 2018, at 8:29 a.m. local time (17:29:28 UTC). For the most up-to-date information, please visit the USGS event page, and for estimates of casualties and damage, visit the USGS Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) website.
The Woods Hole Coastal and Marine Science Center Aerial Imaging and Mapping Group Aids in Monitoring and Mapping the Kīlauea Volcanic Eruption
On May 3, 2018, Kīlauea, one of the world’s most active volcanoes, began an over three-month-long eruption. Tina Neal and the rest of her team at the U.S. Geological Survey Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) have been spearheading all Kīlauea monitoring and data-analysis efforts, and continue to provide regular updates on the status...
Mount St. Helens volcano loomed in the distance as 25 middle-school “GeoGirls” signed in, received a name tag, dropped their overnight gear and gathered in a grassy open space to meet camp staff, women scientists and volunteers.