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The U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN) is a Federal body created in 1890 and established in its present form by Public Law in 1947 to maintain uniform geographic name usage throughout the Federal Government. The BGN comprises representatives of Federal agencies concerned with geographic information, population, ecology, and management of public lands.
November 19, 2021 Update
In response to the Department of the Interior Secretarial Order 3404 - Declaring "Squaw" a Derogatory Term and Implementing Procedures to Remove the Term from Federal Usage, and Secretarial Order 3405 - Addressing Derogatory Geographic Names, a list of all official feature names that include the word "Squaw", as recorded in the Board on Geographic Names (BGN) Geographic Names Information System (GNIS), is available at: Geographic Names Information System (nationalmap.gov). Please note that a small number of names on this list are outside the purview of the BGN but are considered official for Federal use.
The U.S. Board on Geographic Names (BGN) is a Federal body created in 1890 and established in its present form by Public Law in 1947 to maintain uniform geographic name usage throughout the Federal Government. The BGN comprises representatives of Federal agencies concerned with geographic information, population, ecology, and management of public lands. Sharing its responsibilities with the Secretary of the Interior, the BGN promulgates official geographic feature names with locative attributes as well as principles, policies, and procedures governing the use of domestic names, foreign names, Antarctic names, and undersea feature names.
The original program of names standardization addressed the complex issues of domestic geographic feature names during the surge of exploration, mining, and settlement of western territories after the American Civil War. Inconsistencies and contradictions among many names, spellings, and applications became a serious problem to surveyors, map makers, and scientists who required uniform, non-conflicting geographic nomenclature. President Benjamin Harrison signed an Executive Order establishing the BGN and giving it authority to resolve unsettled geographic names questions. Decisions of the BGN were accepted as binding by all departments and agencies of the Federal Government.
The BGN gradually expanded its interests to include foreign names and other areas of interest to the United States, a process that accelerated during World War II. In 1947, the BGN was recreated by Congress in Public_Law_80-242. The Bylaws of the BGN have been in place since 1948 and have been revised when needed. The usefulness of standardizing (not regulating) geographic names has been proven time and again, and today more than 50 nations have some type of national names authority. The United Nations stated that "the best method to achieve international standardization is through strong programs of national standardization." Numerous nations established policies relevant to toponymy (the study of names) in their respective countries.
In this age of geographic information systems, the Internet, and homeland defense, geographic names data are even more important and more challenging. Applying the latest technology, the BGN continues its mission. It serves the Federal Government and the public as a central authority to which name problems, name inquiries, name changes, and new name proposals can be directed. In partnership with Federal, State, and local agencies, the BGN provides a conduit through which uniform geographic name usage is applied and current names data are promulgated. The U.S. Geological Survey's National Geospatial Program and the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency provide secretariat support to the Domestic Names Committee and Foreign Names Committee, respectively.
For geographic feature names policies applying to the United States, or to the use of foreign geographic names, Antarctica names, and undersea feature names by the United States, see the respective items in the main menu on the left. Any person or organization, public or private, may make inquiries or request the BGN to render formal decisions on proposed new names, proposed name changes, or names that are in conflict. Meetings are open to the public and are held according to schedule. Minutes of the BGN's meetings are available. Communications concerning the BGN should be addressed to:
U.S. Board on Geographic Names