ANOVA with post hoc multiple pairwise statistical comparison.

ANOVA with post hoc multiple pairwise statistical comparison between compositions of selected unexpanded vermiculite ore.

Detailed Description

Table A3.  ANOVA with post hoc multiple pairwise statistical comparison between compositions of the selected unexpanded vermiculite ore samples and all other unexpanded vermiculite ore samples from the four major historical sources examined in this study.

Notes: Mg fraction = Mg/(Mg+Aloct +Feoct), tetrahedral Al fraction = (Altet + Si), total Al, and total Fe are based on Electron Probe MicroAnalysis (EPMA) of the selected unexpanded ore samples and all unexpanded samples studied from each of the four major historical sources.  Mg=total Mg; oct = octahedral; tet = tetrahedral.

a P is used as an ANOVA (Analysis of Variability) statistical test metric of whether differences in median compositional values of the selected unexpanded samples are statistically distinct from random sampling variability.  A value of P < 0.050 is evidence that the median composition of a sample is statistically distinct from the median compositions of the group of other samples.  A value of P > 0.050 is weak evidence that the median composition of a sample is statistically distinct from median compositions of the other group of samples.  Differences may be due to random variations in composition.  A value of P close to 0.05 indicates that the median composition of a sample may or may not be statistically distinct from the median compositions of the other group of samples.  A value of P near 0.001 provides strong evidence that the median composition of a sample is statistically distinct from the median compositions of the other group of samples.  ANOVA test on ranks performed and multiple pairwise comparisons done using Dunn’s test.

b Median EPMA Mg fraction and total Fe compositional values of the unexpanded Zonolite® 4 sample are statistically distinct from those of the unexpanded samples studied from Enoree.  Specifically, the Zonolite® 4 sample’s Mg fraction is statistically distinct from those for 2 of the 
14 unexpanded samples and its total Fe value is distinct from those for 4 of the 14 unexpanded samples.  

c Median EPMA Mg fraction and tetrahedral Al fractions of the unexpanded Zonolite® 4 sample are statistically distinct from those of the seven unexpanded samples studied from Libby.

d Median EPMA composition values of the selected unexpanded ALB1VA00, Zonolite® 4, and GDS469 samples are statistically distinct from those of the five unexpanded samples studied from Palabora. 

Details

Image Dimensions: 978 x 537

Date Taken:

Location Taken: US

Source:

Characterizing the source of potentially asbestos-bearing commercial vermiculite insulation using in situ IR spectroscopy
Swayze, G.A., Lowers, H.A., Benzel, W.M., Clark, R.N., Driscoll, R.L., Perlman, Z.S., Hoefen, T.M., and Dyar, M.D., 2018, American Mineralogist, v. 103, p. 517-549.

https://doi.org/10.2138/am-2018-6022
Abstract: Commercially produced vermiculite insulation from Libby, Montana, contains trace levels of asbestiform amphibole, which is known to cause asbestos-related diseases. When vermiculite insulation is found in a building, evaluation for its potential asbestos content traditionally involves collecting a sample from an attic or wall and submitting it for potentially time-consuming analyses at an off-site laboratory. The goal of this study was to determine if in situ near-infrared reflectance measurements could be used to reliably identify the source of vermiculite ore and therefore its potential to contain asbestos. Spectra of 52 expanded ore samples, including attic insulation, commercial packing materials, and horticultural products from Libby, Montana; Louisa, Virginia; Enoree, South Carolina; Palabora, South Africa; and Jiangsu, China, were measured with a portable spectrometer. The mine sources for these vermiculite ores were identified based on collection location, when known, and on differences in elemental composition as measured by electron probe microanalysis. Reflectance spectra of the insulation samples show vibrational overtone and combination absorptions that vary in wavelength position and relative intensity depending on elemental composition and proportions of their constituent micas (i.e., vermiculite ore usually consists of a mixture of hydrobiotite and vermiculite mineral flakes). Band depth ratios of the 1.38/2.32-, 1.40/1.42-, and 2.24/2.38-µm absorptions allow determination of a vermiculite insulation’s source and detection of its potential to contain amphibole, talc, and/or serpentine impurities. Spectroscopy cannot distinguish asbestiform vs non-asbestiform amphiboles. However, if the spectrally determined mica composition and mineralogy of an insulation sample is consistent with ore from Libby, then it is likely that some portion of the sodic-calcic amphibole it contains is asbestiform, given that all of the nearly two dozen Libby vermiculite insulation samples examined with scanning electron microscopy in this study contain amphiboles. One sample of expanded vermiculite ore from multiple sources was recognized as a limitation of the spectral method, therefore an additional test (i.e., 2.24-µm absorption position vs 2.24/2.38-µm band depth) was incorporated into the spectral method to eliminate misclassification caused by such mixtures. With portable field spectrometers, the methodology developed can be used to determine vermiculite insulation’s source and estimate its potential amphibole content, thereby providing low-cost analysis with onsite reporting to property owners.