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3-D seismic tomographic study of Sinabung Volcano, Northern Sumatra, Indonesia, during the inter-eruptive period October 2010-July 2013

September 15, 2019

We estimated 3D P-wave velocity (Vp), S-wave velocity (Vs), and Vp/Vs tomographic structures in and around the Sinabung Volcano area, Northern Sumatra, Indonesia during the intereruptive period between October 2010 and July 2013 using high-quality P- and S-wave phases from > 600 local volcano tectonic (VT) earthquakes and more than 5000 phase picks. We used the iteritive damped-least-squares method of SIMULPS12 to simultaneously invert for the velocity structure and hypocenter relocations. We find that the majority of the VT earthquakes locate beneath Sinabung volcano to depths of about 8 km, with distal hypocenters dominantly to the north and northwest of the summit. We find six anomalous regions with the most notable including an area of low seismicity, high Vp/Vs and low Vp at depths of around 5 km slightly south of the summit. We believe this anomaly most likely represents hot material with some partial melt that may be the source for the 2010 phreatic eruptions and continued unrest throughout the study period. We also find a region below the summit with high seismicity, high Vp, high Vs and low Vp/Vs that we believe likely represents old intrusive material that has been fractured by the processes of the 2010 phreatic eruptions. Other shallow anomalous values of Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs are consistent with the known geology of Sinabung: anomalies of high Vp and Vs likely represent old, well-consolidated rock, and are observed to the SW and NE of Sinabung; while low Vp, low Vs and high Vp/Vs likely represent increased fracture densities, temperatures, or gas contents in geothermal features to the west of the summit. Finally we compare our results to those of the tomographic study during the October to November 2013 eruptive period in Nugraha et al. (this issue) and find evidence that suggests magma rose from the lower region imaged in our study to within a few kilometers of the surface.

Citation Information

Publication Year 2019
Title 3-D seismic tomographic study of Sinabung Volcano, Northern Sumatra, Indonesia, during the inter-eruptive period October 2010-July 2013
DOI 10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2019.03.001
Authors Novianti Indrastuti, Andri Dian Nugraha, Wendy A. McCausland, Mohammad Hendrasto, Hendra Gunawan, Ridwan Kusnandar, K. Kasbani, Kristianto
Publication Type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Series Title Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research
Series Number
Index ID 70205833
Record Source USGS Publications Warehouse
USGS Organization Volcano Science Center

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