This document describes a standard operating procedure (SOP) for the preparation of purposely killed juvenile salmon, implanted with telemetry transmitters, to be released into rivers, lakes, or streams to test one of the survival model assumptions. Procedures for releases of purposely killed fish (hereinafter dead fish releases) were developed by staff from the U.S. Geological Survey’s Columbia River Research Laboratory, on the basis of laboratory experiments and practical experience with telemetry studies in the Columbia River Basin. Initially, we used extended exposure to high dose anesthetic baths to euthanize fish for dead fish releases. This approach was selected on the basis of euthanization procedures described in the literature for studies that required an effective and rapid procedure, such as stress physiology assessments. Ultimately, this technique was deemed insufficient because detection records suggested that some fish seemed to revive and continue their migration with limited effect. That is, the detection histories of dead fish were very similar to those of live fish. To overcome this challenge, we adapted our procedures to require a combination of euthanization procedures on individual fish to ensure that there was no opportunity for revival. A combination of euthanization procedures for dead fish releases was used in one study in Germany. This SOP has been used by the U.S. Geological Survey to test survival model assumptions in several field studies and has consistently performed well. In addition, limited laboratory tests were completed to ensure that no live juvenile salmon were found in holding tanks for 24 hours following the procedures described in this SOP.
|Title||A standard operating procedure for the preparation of purposely killed juvenile salmon used to test survival model assumptions|
|Authors||Ryan G. Tomka, Theresa L. Liedtke, Conrad Frost, Collin D. Smith|
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Series Title||Open-File Report|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||Western Fisheries Research Center|