This manual is intended to be a guide for hydrologists using borehole geophysics in ground-water studies. The emphasis is on the application and interpretation of geophysical well logs, and not on the operation of a logger. It describes in detail those logging techniques that have been utilized within the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, and those used in petroleum investigations that have potential application to hydrologic problems. Most of the logs described can be made by commercial logging service companies, and many can be made with small water-well loggers. The general principles of each technique and the rules of log interpretation are the same, regardless of differences in instrumentation. Geophysical well logs can be interpreted to determine the lithology, geometry, resistivity, formation factor, bulk density, porosity, permeability, moisture content, and specific yield of water-bearing rocks, and to define the source, movement, and chemical and physical characteristics of ground water. Numerous examples of logs are used to illustrate applications and interpretation in various ground-water environments. The interrelations between various types of logs are emphasized, and the following aspects are described for each of the important logging techniques: Principles and applications, instrumentation, calibration and standardization, radius of investigation, and extraneous effects.
|Title||Application of borehole geophysics to water-resources investigations|
|Authors||W.S. Keys, L. M. MacCary|
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Series Title||Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|