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Atmospheric transport, deposition, and fate of triazine herbicides and their metabolites in pristine areas at Isle Royale National Park

January 1, 2000

Trace concentrations of triazine herbicides, used in the Midwestern United States, are being transported atmospherically hundreds of kilometers and deposited by precipitation onto pristine areas, such as Isle Royale National Park (Lake Superior). Atrazine, deethylatrazine, deisopropylatrazine, and cyanazine were detected in Isle Royale rainfall from mid-May to early July (1992−1994) at concentrations of less than 0.005 to 1.8 μg/L. Analysis of predominant wind direction indicated that the herbicides originated from the upper Midwestern United States. The annual mass of herbicides deposited by rainfall varied between years, from 13.4 μg/m2/yr for 1992, 3.7 μg/m2/yr for 1993, and 54 μg/m2/yr for 1994. Atrazine and deethylatrazine were found also in concentrations of less than 5−22 ng/L in lakes across Isle Royale. Concentrations of atrazine in the surface layer of the lakes increased during deposition periods and decreased later in the year. The fate of triazines in shallow lakes suggests faster degradation and shorter half-lives, while deeper lakes have residence times for atrazine that may exceed 10 years.

Publication Year 2000
Title Atmospheric transport, deposition, and fate of triazine herbicides and their metabolites in pristine areas at Isle Royale National Park
DOI 10.1021/es000995l
Authors E. M. Thurman, A.E. Cromwell
Publication Type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Series Title Environmental Science & Technology
Index ID 70022684
Record Source USGS Publications Warehouse
USGS Organization Toxic Substances Hydrology Program