A coral-basalt breccia-conglomerate is exposed >60m above present sea level and nearly 2km inland from the present shoreline on the southwest side of East Molokai Volcano. This deposits was apparently laid down by a giant wave that broke over an outer reef, similar to the present fringing reef, and advanced as a turbulent bore over the back-reef flat, picking up a slurry of carbonate-rich debris and depositing it on the slopes inland as the wave advanced. U-series dating of coral fragments indicates that the age of this deposit is 240-200 ka. This giant wave was most likley caused by one of the many large submarine landslides that have been identified on the lower slopes of the major Hawaiian Islands.
|Title||Chaotic deposition by a giant wave, Molokai, Hawaii|
|Authors||J. G. Moore, W.B. Bryan, K. R. Ludwig|
|Publication Subtype||Journal Article|
|Series Title||Geological Society of America Bulletin|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||Volcano Hazards Program|