Infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) is a significant viral disease affecting salmonids, whereas Flavobacterium psychrophilum (Fp), the causative agent of bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD), remains one of the most significant bacterial pathogens of salmonids. We explored maternal immunity in the context of IHN and BCWD management in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture. Two experimental trials were conducted where different groups of female broodstock were immunized prior to spawning with an IHNV DNA vaccine or a live attenuated F. psychrophilum (Fp B.17-ILM) vaccine alone, or in combination. Progeny were challenged with either a low or high dose of IHNV at 13 days post hatch (dph) and 32 dph or challenged with F. psychrophilum at 13 dph. Mortality following a low-dose IHNV challenge at 13 dph was significantly lower in progeny from vaccinated broodstock vs. unvaccinated broodstock, but no significant differences were observed at 32 dph. Mortality due to BCWD was also significantly reduced in 13 dph fry that originated from broodstock immunized with the Fp B.17-ILM vaccine. After vaccination broodstock developed specific or neutralizing antibodies respectively to F. psychrophilum and IHNV; however, antibody titers in eggs and fry were undetectable. In the eggs and fry mRNA transcripts of the complement components C3 and C5 were detected at much higher levels in progeny from vaccinated broodstock and showed a significantly increased and rapid response post-challenge compared with unvaccinated broodstock. After challenges pro-inflammatory cytokine expression was immediately and considerably elevated in the fry from vaccinated broodstock vs. unvaccinated broodstock, whereas adaptive immune genes were elevated to a lesser degree. Results suggest that maternal transfer of innate and adaptive factors at the transcript level occurred because development of lymphomyeloid organs is not complete in such young fry. In addition to documenting maternally derived immunity in teleosts, this study demonstrates that broodstock vaccination can confer some degree of protection to progeny against viral and bacterial pathogens.
|Title||Characterization of maternal immunity following vaccination of broodstock against IHNV or Flavobacterium psychrophilum in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)|
|Authors||Jie Ma, Jesse T. Trushenski, Evan M. Jones, Timothy J. Bruce, Doug G. McKenney, Gael Kurath, Kenneth D. Cain|
|Publication Subtype||Journal Article|
|Series Title||Fish and Shellfish Immunology|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||Western Fisheries Research Center|