Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout

April 24, 2013

Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as 3 major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In coastal Washington State, IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in coastal Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were 8 IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving 7 different fish culture facilities in 4 separate watersheds. During the same time period, IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from 6 coastal watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from coastal Washington revealed that the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV and that there were 2 distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007 and 2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in coastal steelhead trout during 2007 to 2009, and type mG139M was dominant between 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all coastal M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007 to 2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the coastal sites. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of coastal MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout. 

Citation Information

Publication Year 2013
Title Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout
DOI 10.3354/dao02596
Authors Rachel Breyta, Amelia Jones, Bruce Stewart, Ray Brunson, Joan Thomas, John Kerwin, Jim Bertolini, Sonia Mumford, Chris Patterson, Gael Kurath
Publication Type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Series Title Diseases of Aquatic Organisms
Series Number
Index ID 70045589
Record Source USGS Publications Warehouse
USGS Organization Western Fisheries Research Center