The objective of the watershed-management evaluation monitoring program in Wisconsin is to evaluate the effectiveness of the best-management practices (BMPs) for rural streams, urban streams, and urban storm sewers. This report is an annual summary of the data collected for the program and a report of the results from several different special studies conducted within this program.
Suspended sediment and total phosphorus storm-load data are summarized for eight rural sites and suspended sediment, total phosphorus, total recoverable lead, total recoverable copper, total recoverable zinc, and total recoverable cadmium storm-load data are summarized for four urban sites. Dissolved-oxygen data is summarized and compared with Wisconsin's waterquality standards for summer 1993 for seven rural sites. The dissolved-oxygen concentrations declined to levels below these standards at least one time at all seven sites during summer 1993. Total-recoverable hardness concentrations were compared with dissolved-hardness concentrations at two urban streams and two urban storm sewers. Least-squared linear regressions resulted in stronger relations for low-flow conditions than for high-flow conditions, indicating that most hardness during low flow is dissolved hardness. Pesticide data are summarized for four urban sites and six rural sites. Herbicides were detected at urban and rural sites; whereas insecticides were detected only at urban sites.
A land-use and best-management-practice inventory is ongoing for each evaluation monitoring project to track the different sources of nonpoint pollution in each watershed and to document implementation of best-management programs that may cause changes in water quality of streams. Updated information is gathered each year, mapped, and stored in a geographic-information-system data base.
The quality-assurance/quality-control plan for the urban watershed-management evaluation program consisted of a series of blank samples. These blank samples were used to identify and isolate contamination by inorganic and organic components throughout the collection and processing of urban streamwater samples. A dissolved trace-metal contamination problem was identified and resolved by using different laboratory- supplied sample bottles.
A special study was done to determine the effect of holding time on fecal coliform colony counts. A linear regression indicated that the mean decrease in colony counts over 72 hours was 8.2 percent per day. Results after 24 hours showed that colony counts increased in some samples and decreased in others.
|Title||Evaluation of nonpoint-source contamination, Wisconsin; selected streamwater-quality data, land-use and best-management practices inventory, and quality assurance and quality control, water year 1993|
|Authors||Steven R. Corsi, John F. Walker, D. J. Graczyk, S.R. Greb, D.W. Owens, K.F. Rappold|
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Series Title||Open-File Report|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||Wisconsin Water Science Center|