Zebra (Dreissena polymorpha) and quagga (D. bugensis) mussels, first introduced from central Asia into the Great Lakes of North America in the late 1980s, have crossed the continental divide and more recently spread across western North America. At the same time, several new technologies have been developed for the early detection of dreissenids, including the FlowCam, a digital imaging-in-flow instrument, intended to detect dreissenid planktonic larvae (veligers). However, the efficacy of this technology has rarely been tested. We experimentally evaluated the FlowCam’s ability to capture identifiable images of quagga mussel veligers under 2 different types of conditions: (i) deionized water, and (ii) Columbia River Basin water (CRBW), including natural sediment and native plankton. We further evaluated the FlowCam’s ability to distinguish between dreissenid veligers and corbiculid veligers (Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea). We interpret our results to indicate that the FlowCam can consistently detect dreissenid veligers across a range of veliger densities. Moreover, the presence of other plankton and detritus only slightly affected dreissenid detection by the FlowCam. However, the orientation of individual bivalve veligers as they were imaged by the FlowCam precluded specific identification of a substantial proportion (24.8%) of veligers as either dreissenid or corbiculid. We suggest that the FlowCam is an important detection tool best utilized as part of a multifaceted approach, including traditional microscopy and possibly environmental DNA.
|Title||An experimental evaluation of the efficacy of imaging flow cytometry (FlowCam) for detecting invasive Dreissened and Corbiculid bivalve veligers|
|Authors||Whitney Hassett, Julie Zimmerman, Gretchen Rollwagen-Bollens, Stephen M. Bollens, Timothy Counihan|
|Publication Subtype||Journal Article|
|Series Title||Lake and Reservoir Management|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||Western Fisheries Research Center|