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Geochemistry of southern Pagan Island lavas, Mariana arc: The role of subduction zone processes

January 1, 2011

New major and trace element abundances, and Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic ratios of Quaternary lavas from two adjacent volcanoes (South Pagan and the Central Volcanic Region, or CVR) located on Pagan Island allow us to investigate the mantle source (i.e., slab components) and melting dynamics within the Mariana intra-oceanic arc. Geologic mapping reveals a pre-caldera (780-9.4ka) and post-caldera (<9.4ka) eruptive stage for South Pagan, whereas the eruptive history of the older CVR is poorly constrained. Crystal fractionation and magma mixing were important crustal processes for lavas from both volcanoes. Geochemical and isotopic variations indicate that South Pagan and CVR lavas, and lavas from the northern volcano on the island, Mt. Pagan, originated from compositionally distinct parental magmas due to variations in slab contributions (sediment and aqueous fluid) to the mantle wedge and the extent of mantle partial melting. A mixing model based on Pb and Nd isotopic ratios suggests that the average amount of sediment in the source of CVR (~2.1%) and South Pagan (~1.8%) lavas is slightly higher than Mt. Pagan (~1.4%) lavas. These estimates span the range of sediment-poor Guguan (~1.3%) and sediment-rich Agrigan (~2.0%) lavas for the Mariana arc. Melt modeling demonstrates that the saucer-shaped normalized rare earth element (REE) patterns observed in Pagan lavas can arise from partial melting of a mixed source of depleted mantle and enriched sediment, and do not require amphibole interaction or fractionation to depress the middle REE abundances of the lavas. The modeled degree of mantle partial melting for Agrigan (2-5%), Pagan (3-7%), and Guguan (9-15%) lavas correlates with indicators of fluid addition (e.g., Ba/Th). This relationship suggests that the fluid flux to the mantle wedge is the dominant control on the extent of partial melting beneath Mariana arc volcanoes. A decrease in the amount of fluid addition (lower Ba/Th) and extent of melting (higher Sm/Yb), and an increase in the sediment contribution (higher Th/Nb, La/Sm, and Pb isotopic ratios) from Mt. Pagan to South Pagan could reflect systematic cross-arc or irregular along-arc melting variations. These observations indicate that the length scale of compositional heterogeneity in the mantle wedge beneath Mariana arc volcanoes is small (~10km).

Citation Information

Publication Year 2011
Title Geochemistry of southern Pagan Island lavas, Mariana arc: The role of subduction zone processes
DOI 10.1007/s00410-010-0592-1
Authors J.P. Marske, A.J. Pietruszka, F. A. Trusdell, M.O. Garcia
Publication Type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Series Title Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology
Series Number
Index ID 70035869
Record Source USGS Publications Warehouse
USGS Organization Hawaiian Volcano Observatory