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Mineral commodity profiles: Cadmium

March 1, 2004

Overview -- Cadmium is a soft, low-melting-point metal that has many uses. It is similar in abundance to antimony and bismuth and is the 63d element in order of crustal abundance. Cadmium is associated in nature with zinc (and, less closely, with lead and copper) and is extracted mainly as a byproduct of the mining and processing of zinc. In 2000, it was refined in 27 countries, of which the 8 largest accounted for two-thirds of world production. The United States was the third largest refiner after Japan and China. World production in 2000 was 19,700 metric tons (t) and U.S. production was 1,890 t. In the United States, one company in Illinois and another in Tennessee refined primary cadmium. A Pennsylvania company recovered cadmium from scrap, mainly spent nickel-cadmium (NiCd) batteries. The supply of cadmium in the world and in the United States appears to be adequate to meet future industrial needs; the United States has about 23 percent of the world reserve base.

Citation Information

Publication Year 2004
Title Mineral commodity profiles: Cadmium
DOI 10.3133/ofr02238
Authors W. C. Butterman, Jozef Plachy
Publication Type Report
Publication Subtype USGS Numbered Series
Series Title Open-File Report
Series Number 2002-238
Index ID ofr02238
Record Source USGS Publications Warehouse
USGS Organization