Multigenerational, indirect exposure to pyrethroids demonstrates potential compensatory response and reduced toxicity at higher salinity in estuarine fish
Estuarine environments are critical to fish species and serve as nurseries for developing embryos and larvae. They also undergo daily fluctuations in salinity and act as filters for pollutants. Additionally, global climate change (GCC) is altering salinity regimes within estuarine systems through changes in precipitation and sea level rise. GCC is also likely to lead to an increased use of insecticides to prevent pests from damaging agricultural crops as their habitats and mating seasons change from increased temperatures. This underscores the importance of understanding how insecticide toxicity to fish changes under different salinity conditions. In this study, larval Inland Silversides (Menidia beryllina) were exposed to bifenthrin (1.1 ng/L), cyfluthrin (0.9 ng/L), or cyhalothrin (0.7 ng/L) at either 6 or 10 practical salinity units (PSU) for 96 h during hatching, with a subset assessed for end points relevant to neurotoxicity and endocrine disruption by testing behavior, gene expression of a select suite of genes, reproduction, and growth. At both salinities, directly exposed F0 larvae were hypoactive relative to the F0 controls; however, the indirectly exposed F1 larvae were hyperactive relative to the F1 control. This could be evidence of a compensatory response to environmentally relevant concentrations of pyrethroids in fish. Effects on development, gene expression, and growth were also observed. Overall, exposure to pyrethroids at 10 PSU resulted in fewer behavioral and endocrine disruptive effects relative to those observed in organisms at 6 PSU.
|Multigenerational, indirect exposure to pyrethroids demonstrates potential compensatory response and reduced toxicity at higher salinity in estuarine fish
|Sara Hutton, Samreen Siddiqui, Emily Pedersen, Christopher Markgraf, Amelie Segarra, Michelle Hladik, Richard E Connon, Susanne M. Brander
|Environmental Science and Technology
|USGS Publications Warehouse
|California Water Science Center