We present a petrologic and mineral physics database as part of the U.S. Geological Survey National Crustal Model (NCM). Each of 209 geologic units, 134 of which are currently part of the geologic framework within the NCM, was assigned a mineralogical composition according to generalized classifications with some refinement for specific geologic formations. This report is concerned with the petrology and mineral physics of each geologic unit within the NCM, which control the physical behavior of the solid mineral matrix within the rock.
This mineral physics database builds on the work of Abers and Hacker to include 13 minerals specific to continental rock types. We explored the effect of this database on zero-porosity anharmonic P- and S-wave rock velocities and density relative to a well-used empirical study of relations between wavespeeds and density by Brocher. We found that empirical relations between P-wave velocity and S-wave velocity or density do well on average but can differ from mineral physics calculations by up to 15 percent in S-wave velocity and almost 40 percent in density. This is consistent with Brocher’s study where he obtained similar results for in situ measurements and laboratory rock specimens.
Additionally, the substantial presence of quartz in many rocks plays a major role in crustal seismic velocities and density due to quartz’s α–β phase transition, which can interfere with these empirical relationships. With increasing depth, quartz P-wave velocity can suddenly jump by 15 percent accompanied by little change in S-wave velocity and a modest decrease in density. Empirical relations based on observed P-wave velocity where P-wave velocity is positively correlated with S-wave velocity and density would then significantly overestimate both S-wave velocity and density.
|Title||Petrologic and mineral physics database for use with the U.S. Geological Survey National Crustal Model|
|Authors||Theron Sowers, Oliver S. Boyd|
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Series Title||Open-File Report|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||Earthquake Science Center|