Remote sensing has become an increasingly viable tool for characterizing fluvial systems. In this study, we used field measurements from a 1.6 km reach of the upper Sacramento River, CA, to evaluate the potential of mapping water depths from a range of platforms, sensors, and depth retrieval methods. Field measurements of water column optical properties also were compared to similar data sets from other rivers to provide context for our results. We considered field spectra, a multispectral satellite image, hyperspectral data collected from conventional and unmanned aircraft, and a bathymetric LiDAR and applied a generalized version of Optimal Band Ratio Analysis (OBRA) and the K nearest neighbors regression (KNN) machine learning algorithm. Linear, quadratic, exponential, power, and lowess OBRA models enabled more flexible curve-fitting in calibrating spectrally based quantities to depth; an exponential formulation avoided artifacts associated with other model types. KNN increased observed vs. predicted R2 values, particularly for the satellite image; we also found that pre-processing of satellite images was unnecessary and that a basic data product could be used for depth retrieval. Bathymetric LiDAR was highly accurate and precise in shallow water, but a lack of bottom returns from areas greater than 2 m deep resulted in large gaps in coverage. The maximum detectable depth imposes an important constraint on fluvial remote sensing and a hybrid approach combined with field surveys of deep areas might be a more realistic operational strategy for bathymetric mapping. Future work will focus on scaling up from short reaches to long river segments.
|Title||Remote sensing of river bathymetry: Evaluating a range of sensors, platforms, and algorithms on the upper Sacramento River, California, USA|
|Authors||Carl J. Legleiter, Lee R. Harrison|
|Publication Subtype||Journal Article|
|Series Title||Water Resources Research|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||WMA - Integrated Modeling and Prediction Division|