Previously, we demonstrated that a representative M genogroup type strain of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) from rainbow trout grows well in rainbow trout‐derived RTG‐2 cells, but a U genogroup type strain from sockeye salmon has restricted growth, associated with reduced genome replication and mRNA transcription. Here, we analysed further the mechanisms for this growth restriction of U‐type IHNV in RTG‐2 cells, using strategies that assessed differences in viral genes, host immune regulation and phosphorylation. To determine whether the viral glycoprotein (G) or non‐virion (NV) protein was responsible for the growth restriction, four recombinant IHNV viruses were generated in which the G gene of an infectious IHNV clone was replaced by the G gene of U‐ or M‐type IHNV and the NV gene was replaced by NV of U‐ or M‐type IHNV. There was no significant difference in the growth of these recombinants in RTG‐2 cells, indicating that G and NV proteins are not major factors responsible for the differential growth of the U‐ and M‐type strains. Poly I:C pretreatment of RTG‐2 cells suppressed the growth of both U‐ and M‐type IHNV, although the M virus continued to replicate at a reduced level. Both viruses induced type 1 interferon (IFN1) and the IFN1 stimulated gene Mx1, but the expression levels in M‐infected cells were significantly higher than in U‐infected cells and an inhibitor of the IFN1‐inducible protein kinase PKR, 2‐aminopurine (2‐AP), did not affect the growth of U‐ or M‐type IHNV in RTG‐2 cells. These data did not indicate a role for the IFN1 system in the restricted growth of U‐type IHNV in RTG‐2 cells. Prediction of kinase‐specific phosphorylation sites in the viral phosphoprotein (P) using the NetPhosK program revealed differences between U‐ and M‐type P genes at five phosphorylation sites. Pretreatment of RTG‐2 cells with a PKC inhibitor or a p38MAPK inhibitor did not affect the growth of the U‐ and M‐type viruses. However, 100 μm of the casein kinase II (CKII) inhibitor, 5,6‐dichloro‐1‐β‐d‐ribofuranosylbenzimidazole (DRB), reduced the titre of the U type 8.3‐fold at 24 h post‐infection. In contrast, 100 μm of the CKII inhibitor reduced the titre of the M type only 1.3‐fold at 48 h post‐infection. Our data suggest that the different growth of U‐ and M‐type IHNV in RTG‐2 cells may be linked to a differential requirement for cellular protein kinases such as CKII for their growth.
|Title||Restricted growth of U-type infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout cells may be linked to casein kinase II activity|
|Authors||J. W. Park, C. H. Moon, A. Harmache, A. R. Wargo, M. K. Purcell, M. Bremont, Gael Kurath|
|Publication Subtype||Journal Article|
|Series Title||Journal of Fish Diseases|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||Western Fisheries Research Center|
Gael Kurath, Ph.D.
Gael Kurath, Ph.D.