Water resources in the Fond du Lac Indian Reservation meet the present (1987) needs for drinking-water supplies and other household uses with respect to water quality and quantity, and provide valuable ecological, recreational, and aesthetic benefits. Total annual water use in the Reservation is about 36.5 million gallons per year and per capita use is about 100 gallons per day. Practically all the water is used for domestic supply. Ground water is the source of all water supplies in the Reservation.
Three aquifers are the source of ground water in the Reservation. Unconfined-drift aquifers consist of surficial outwash that extends over one third of the Reservation. Confined-drift aquifers consist of sand and gravel deposits that occur discontinuously at depths of 50 to 150 feet throughout the Reservation. The third aquifer is in crystalline bedrock that underlies the glacial drift.
Surface-water resources in the Reservation consist of numerous wetlands, many shallow lakes, and streams that drain five basins. All the basins in the Reservation are part of the St. Louis River drainage system, except for a small area in the southcentral part of the Reservation that is part of the Kettle River basin. Stoney Brook, which is the major stream, drains three fourths of the Reservation. Average discharge from Stoney Brook during the 1984 water year was 82 cubic feet per second. The lakes in the Reservation, which are shallow and small, have a combined surface area of about 3,000 acres.
Concentrations of constituents in ground-water samples met recommended and regulated limits set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency for drinking water except for samples collected from wells in the unconfined-drift aquifer that suggested limits for nitrate (one sample), iron (two samples), and manganese (six samples), were exceeded. Quality of water in the lakes and streams is suitable for native forms of plant and animal life.
|Title||Water resources of the Fond du Lac Indian Reservation, east-central Minnesota|
|Authors||J. F. Ruhl|
|Publication Subtype||USGS Numbered Series|
|Series Title||Water-Resources Investigations Report|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||Minnesota Water Science Center|