GSFLOW: Coupled Groundwater and Surface-Water Flow Model
Overview of GSFLOW
GSFLOW is a coupled Groundwater and Surface-water FLOW model based on the integration of the USGS Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS-V) and the USGS Modular Groundwater Flow Model (MODFLOW-2005 and MODFLOW-NWT). GSFLOW was developed to simulate coupled groundwater/surface-water flow in one or more watersheds by simultaneously simulating flow across the land surface, within subsurface saturated and unsaturated materials, and within streams and lakes. Climate data consisting of measured or estimated precipitation, air temperature, and solar radiation, as well as groundwater stresses (such as withdrawals) and boundary conditions are the driving factors for a GSFLOW simulation.
GSFLOW operates on a daily time step. In addition to the MODFLOW variable-length stress period used to specify changes in stress or boundary conditions, GSFLOW uses internal daily stress periods for adding recharge to the water table and calculating flows to streams and lakes. Specified stream inflow over boundaries, internal stream-diversion flow rates, and groundwater-pumping flow rates can be specified using time-series input files that allow these stresses to vary during each time step.
GSFLOW can be used to evaluate the effects of such factors as land-use change, climate variability, and groundwater withdrawals on surface and subsurface flow for watersheds that range from a few square kilometers to several thousand square kilometers, and for time periods that range from months to several decades.
Download Current Version of GSFLOW
- Summary of GSFLOW, including release history
- Installation instructions for Microsoft Windows operating systems
- Installation instructions Linux operating systems
- GSFLOW compiled for Microsoft Windows, with source code, documentation, and test problem
- GSFLOW for a personal computer running Linux, with source code, documentation, and test problem
Support is provided for correcting bugs and clarification of how GSFLOW is intended to work. Only limited assistance can be provided for applying GSFLOW to specific problems by contacting GSFLOW Help.
Documentation for GSFLOW
GSFLOW is documented in the following report:
Markstrom, S.L., Niswonger, R.G., Regan, R.S., Prudic, D.E., and Barlow, P.M., 2008, GSFLOW-Coupled Ground-water and Surface-water FLOW model based on the integration of the Precipitation-Runoff Modeling System (PRMS) and the Modular Ground-Water Flow Model (MODFLOW-2005): U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 6-D1, 240 p.
Tools for developing GSFLOW input files:
Gardner, M. A., Morton, C. G., Huntington, J. L., Niswonger, R. G., and Henson, W. R., 2018, Input data processing tools for the integrated hydrologic model GSFLOW: Environmental Modelling & Software, v. 109, p. 41-53.
Documentation for saving GSFLOW results and restarting simulations:
Regan, R.S., Niswonger, R.G., Markstrom, S.L., and Barlow, P.M., 2015, Documentation of a restart option for the U.S. Geological Survey coupled groundwater and surface-water flow (GSFLOW) model: U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods, book 6, chap. D3, 19 p.
Additional documentation can be found in the 'doc' subdirectory in the GSFLOW distribution and in the Summary of GSFLOW, including release history [1 MB PDF]. Users are encouraged to read the documents that are provided in the 'doc' directory of this software distribution.
Programs Related to GSFLOW
- CRT: Cascade Routing Tool to Define and Visualize Flow Paths for Watershed Models
- Model Viewer
- Modeling of Watershed Systems (MoWS) Software Site
Find MODFLOW-Related Software
Visit the MODFLOW and Related Programs page for a list of MODFLOW-related software.
How to Cite GSFLOW
This USGS software has two citations associated with it.
- The report citation is for the original report or article documenting the underlying theory, methods, instructions, and (or) applications at the time the initial version of the software was released. This digital object identifier (DOI) is for the report.
- The software release citation is for the software/code itself (now referred to by USGS as a "Software Release") and references a specific version of the code and associated release date. This DOI links to the code.
In instances where an author is citing use of this software, it would be appropriate to cite both the report documenting the code and the specific software release version that was used.
Report Citation for GSFLOW Shown Above
Software/Code Citation for GSFLOW
Regan, R.S., Niswonger, R.G., Markstrom, S.L., Maples, S.R., and Barlow, P.M., 2018, GSFLOW version 1.2.2: Coupled Groundwater and Surface-water FLOW model: U.S. Geological Survey Software Release, 23 February 2018.
Example USGS Applications of GSFLOW
Allander, K.K., Niswonger, R.N., and Jeton, A.E., 2014, Simulation of the Lower Walker River Basin hydrologic system, west-central Nevada, Using PRMS and MODFLOW models: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2014-5190, 93 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20145190.
Ely, D.M., and Kahle, S.C., 2012, Simulation of groundwater and surface-water resources and evaluation of water-management alternatives for the Chamokane Creek basin, Stevens County, Washington: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2012-5224, 74 p.
Essaid, H.I., and Hill, B.R., 2014, Watershed-scale modeling of streamflow change in incised montane meadows: Water Resources Research, vol. 50, pp. 2657-2678, doi:10.1002/2013WR014420.
Fulton, J.W., Risser, D.W., Regan, R.S., Walker, J.F., Hunt, R.J., Niswonger, R.G., Hoffman, S.A., and Markstrom, S.L., 2015, Water-budgets and recharge-area simulations for the Spring Creek and Nittany Creek Basins and parts of the Spruce Creek Basin, Centre and Huntingdon Counties, Pennsylvania, Water Years 2000-06: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2015-5073, 86 p, http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20155073.
Gannett, M.W., Lite, K.E., Jr., Risley, J.C., Pischel, E.M., and La Marche, J.L., 2017, Simulation of groundwater and surface-water flow in the upper Deschutes Basin, Oregon: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2017-5097, 68 p., https://doi.org/10.3133/sir20175097.
Hunt, R.J., Walker, J.F., Selbig, W.R., Westenbroek, S.M., and Regan, R.S., 2013, Simulation of climate-change effects on streamflow, lake water budgets, and stream temperature using GSFLOW and SNTEMP, Trout Lake Watershed, Wisconsin: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2013-5159, 118 p.
Hunt, R.J., Westenbroek, S.M., Walker, J.F., Selbig, W.R., Regan, R.S., Leaf, A.T., and Saad, D.A., 2016, Simulation of climate change effects on streamflow, groundwater, and stream temperature using GSFLOW and SNTEMP in the Black Earth Creek Watershed, Wisconsin: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2016-5091, 117 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20165091
Huntington, J.L., and Niswonger, R.G., 2012, Role of surface-water and groundwater interactions on projected summertime streamflow in snow dominated regions: An integrated modeling approach: Water Resources Research, vol. 48, W11524, doi: 10.1029/2012WR012319.
Niswonger, R.G., Allander, K.K., and Jeton, A.E., 2014, Collaborative modelling and integrated decision support system analysis of a developed terminal lake basin: Journal of Hydrology, doi: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2014.05.043. Available online at http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022169414004077 or http://authors.elsevier.com/a/1PRMB52cu2~rj
Woolfenden, L.R., and Nishikawa, Tracy, eds., 2014, Simulation of groundwater and surface-water resources of the Santa Rosa Plain watershed, Sonoma County, California: U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Report 2014-5052, 258 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/sir20145052.
Software License and Purchase Information
This software is a product of the U.S. Geological Survey, which is part of the U.S. Government.
This software is freely distributed. There is no fee to download and (or) use this software.
Users do not need a license or permission from the USGS to use this software. Users can download and install as many copies of the software as they need.
As a work of the United States Government, this USGS product is in the public domain within the United States. You can copy, modify, distribute, and perform the work, even for commercial purposes, all without asking permission. Additionally, USGS waives copyright and related rights in the work worldwide through CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication (https://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/ ).
SOFTWARE USER RIGHTS NOTICE
This software has been approved for release by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS). Although the software has been subjected to rigorous review, the USGS reserves the right to update the software as needed pursuant to further analysis and review. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made by the USGS or the U.S. Government as to the functionality of the software and related material nor shall the fact of release constitute any such warranty. Furthermore, the software is released on condition that neither the USGS nor the U.S. Government shall be held liable for any damages resulting from its authorized or unauthorized use. Also refer to the USGS Water Resources Software User Rights Notice for complete use, copyright, and distribution information.
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