A review of infectious agents in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and their long-term ecological relevance
Disease was a listing criterion for the polar bear (Ursus maritimus) as threatened under the Endangered Species Act in 2008; it is therefore important to evaluate the current state of knowledge and identify any information gaps pertaining to diseases in polar bears. We conducted a systematic literature review focused on infectious agents and associated health impacts identified in polar bears. Overall, the majority of reports in free-ranging bears concerned serosurveys or fecal examinations with little to no information on associated health effects. In contrast, most reports documenting illness or pathology referenced captive animals and diseases caused by etiologic agents not representative of exposure opportunities in wild bears. As such, most of the available infectious disease literature has limited utility as a basis for development of future health assessment and management plans. Given that ecological change is a considerable risk facing polar bear populations, future work should focus on cumulative effects of multiple stressors that could impact polar bear population dynamics.
|A review of infectious agents in polar bears (Ursus maritimus) and their long-term ecological relevance
|Anna C. Fagre, Kelly A. Patyk, Pauline Nol, Todd C. Atwood, Karsten Hueffer, Colleen G. Duncan
|USGS Publications Warehouse
|Alaska Science Center Biology MFEB