Near Mirror Lake, New Hampshire (USA), hydraulically conductive, fractured bedrock was investigated with the crosswell seismic method to determine whether this method could provide any information about hydraulic conductivity between wells. To this end, crosswell seismic data, acoustic logs from boreholes, image logs from boreholes, and single borehole hydraulic tests were analyzed. The analysis showed that, first, the P-wave velocities from the acoustic logs tended to be higher in schist than they were in granite. (Schist and granite were the dominant rock types). Second, the P-wave velocities from the acoustic logs tended to be low near fractures. Third, the hydraulic conductivity was always low (always less than to 10−8 m/s) where no fractures intersected the borehole, but the hydraulic conductivity ranged from low to high (from less than to 10−10 m/s to 10−4 m/s) where one or more fractures intersected the borehole. Fourth, high hydraulic conductivities were slightly more frequent when the P-wave velocity was low (less than 5200 m/s) than when it was high (greater than or equal to 5200 m/s). The interpretation of this statistical relation was that the fractures tended to increase the hydraulic conductivity and to lower the P-wave velocity. This statistical relation was applied to a velocity tomogram to create a map showing the probability of high hydraulic conductivity; the map was consistent with results from independent hydraulic tests.
|Title||Crosswell seismic investigation of hydraulically conductive, fracture bedrock near Mirror Lake, New Hampshire|
|Authors||K.J. Ellefsen, P.A. Hsieh, A.M. Shapiro|
|Publication Subtype||Journal Article|
|Series Title||Journal of Applied Geophysics|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||Toxic Substances Hydrology Program|