Skip to main content
U.S. flag

An official website of the United States government

Graphite as an electrically conductive indicator of ancient crustal-scale fluid flow within mineral systems

July 22, 2022

Magnetotelluric (MT) imaging results from mineral provinces in Australia and in the United States show an apparent spatial relationship between crustal-scale electrical conductivity anomalies and major magmatic-hydrothermal iron oxide-apatite/iron oxide-copper-gold (IOA-IOCG) deposits. Although these observations have driven substantial interest in the use of MT data to image ancient fluid pathways, the exact cause of these anomalies has been unclear. Here, we interpret the conductors to be the result of graphite precipitation from CO2-rich magmatic fluids during cooling. These fluids would have exsolved from mafic magmas at mid- to lower-crustal depths; saline magmatic fluids that could drive mineralization were likely derived from related, more evolved intrusions at shallower crustal levels. In our model, the conductivity anomalies then mark zones that once were the deep roots of ancient magmatic-hydrothermal mineral systems.

Citation Information

Publication Year 2022
Title Graphite as an electrically conductive indicator of ancient crustal-scale fluid flow within mineral systems
DOI 10.1016/j.epsl.2022.117700
Authors Benjamin Scott Murphy, Jan Marten Huizenga, Paul A. Bedrosian
Publication Type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Series Title Earth and Planetary Science Letters
Series Number
Index ID 70233543
Record Source USGS Publications Warehouse
USGS Organization Geologic Hazards Science Center, Geology, Geophysics, and Geochemistry Science Center