Subduction-zone volcanoes account for more than 80 percent of the documented eruptions in recorded history, even though volcanism--deep and, hence, unobserved--along the global oceanic ridge systems overwhelmingly dominates in eruptive output. Because subduction-zone eruptions can be highly explosive, they pose some of the greatest natural hazards to society if the eruptions occur in densely populated regions. Of the six worst volcanic disasters since A.D. 1600, five have occurred at subduction-zone volcanoes: Unzen, Japan (1792); Tambora, Indonesia (1815); Krakatau, Indonesia (1883); Mont Pe16e, Martinique (1902); and Nevado del Ruiz, Colombia (1985). Sulfuric acid droplets in stratospheric volcanic clouds produced by voluminous explosive eruptions can influence global climate. The 1815 Tambora eruption caused in 1816 a decrease of several Celsius degrees in average summer temperature in Europe and the eastern United States and Canada, resulting in the well-known "Year Without Summer." Similarly, the eruptions of E1 Chichon (Mexico) in 1982 and of Mount Pinatubo (Philippines) in 1991 lowered average temperatures for the northern hemisphere by as much as 0.2 to 0.5 øC, respectively. However, eruption-induced climatic effects of historical eruptions appear to be short-lived, lasting at most for only a few years.
|Title||Hazards and climatic impact of subduction‐zone volcanism: A global and historical perspective|
|Authors||Robert I. Tilling|
|Publication Type||Book Chapter|
|Publication Subtype||Book Chapter|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||California Volcano Observatory|