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Book Chapters

Browse more than 5,500 book chapters authored by our scientists over the past 100+ year history of the USGS and refine search by topic, location, year, and advanced search.

Filter Total Items: 6052

Post-wildfire debris flows

Post-wildfire debris flows pose severe hazards to communities and infrastructure near and within recently burned mountainous terrain. Intense heat of wildfires changes the runoff characteristics of a watershed by combusting the vegetative canopy, litter, and duff, introducing ash into the soil and creating water repellant soils. Following wildfire, rainfall on bare ground is less able to infiltrat
Joseph Gartner, Jason W. Kean, Francis K. Rengers, Scott W. McCoy, Nina S. Oakley, Gary J. Sheridan

The geochemistry of continental hydrothermal systems

Hydrothermal systems on the continents are of great significance because they are primary sources of economically important metals and geothermal energy, they are tourist attractions, they support bathing and health resorts, and they host extreme life forms. Research on hot springs and their deposits provide clues to early life on Earth and possibly on Mars and have led to major breakthroughs in b
Shaul Hurwitz, Andri Stefánsson, Everett L. Shock, Barbara I. Kleine

GeoAI for spatial image processing

The development of digital image processing, as a subset of digital signal processing, depended upon the maturity of photography and image science, introduction of computers, discovery and advancement of digital recording devices, and the capture of digital images. In addition, government and industry applications in the Earth and medical sciences were paramount to the growth of the technology. Fr
Samantha Arundel, Kevin G McKeehan, Wenwen Li, Zhining Gu

Ancient infrastructure offers sustainable agricultural solutions to dryland farming

For 1000 years, human populations in dryland regions of the North American Southwest (NAS) extensively constructed diverse forms of agricultural infrastructure, including canals, linear rock alignments, check dams, stock ponds, and other earthworks and rock structures. The long-term hydrological impacts of these and the demographic and socio-political drivers of construction and maintenance have y
Matthew C. Pailes, Laura M. Norman, Christopher H. Baisan, David Meko, Nicolas E. Gauthier, Jose Villanueva-Diaz, Jeff Dean, Jupiter Martinez, Nicholas V Kessler, Ron Towner

The haunting raptor: Yellowstone’s golden eagles

For many who live in North America, when picturing an eagle, the image of a large magnificent bird with a distinct white head and tail comes to mind. Rightfully, the bald eagle has garnered much attention as a national symbol of the United States (US), nearly brought to extinction from widespread organochlorine pesticide use (e.g., DDT, dichloro- diphenyl- trichloroethane; Anderson 1972, Baril et
David B. Haines, Douglas W. Smith, Todd E. Katzner, Victoria J. Dreitz

Conventional rare earth element mineral deposits: The global landscape

Four conventional mineral deposit types—carbonatite, alkaline igneous, heavy mineral sand, and regolith-hosted ion-adsorption clay deposits—currently supply global markets with the rare earth elements (REEs) and rare earth oxides (REOs) necessary to meet the technological needs of global communities. The unique properties of REEs make them useful in a wide variety of applications, such as alloys,
Nora K. Foley, Robert A. Ayuso

Energy-related rare earth element sources

Energy-related materials such as coal, coal-bearing wastes, and coal combustion products are traditionally thought of as sources or by-products of electric power generation. Increasingly, these materials are considered resources for their content of rare earth elements (REEs) and other useful constituents. In this chapter, we examine the distribution, modes of occurrence, and relative extractabili
Allan Kolker, Liliana Lefticariu, Steven T. Anderson

Cold-water corals of the world: Gulf of Mexico

The Gulf of Mexico is a semi-enclosed sea that borders the USA and Mexico and covers approximately 1.5 million square kilometers. The northern Gulf is topographically complex and is a rich source of oil and gas deposits, which has led to a great deal of research on benthic ecosystems from the coastal zone to the deep sea. While not fully explored, the distribution of cold seeps and deep corals in
Sandra Brooke, Amanda Demopoulos, Harry Roberts, Jay J. Lunden, Tracey Sutton, Andrew Davies

Forecasting water levels using machine (deep) learning to complement numerical modelling in the southern Everglades, USA

Water level is an important guide for water resource management and wetland ecosystems, defining one of the most basic processes in hydrology. This research seeks to investigate the possibility of complementing numerical modeling with a Machine Learning (ML) model to forecast daily water levels in the southern Everglades in Florida, USA. An exact analytical solution to water level may not be possi
Courtney S Forde, Biswa Bhattacharya, Dimitri Solomatine, Eric Swain, Nicholas Aumen

Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs) in Oregon

No abstract available.
Kurt D. Carpenter, Chauncey W. Anderson, Daniel Sobota

Avian influenza in wild birds

Influenza A viruses (IAVs)maintained among wild waterfowl, gulls, shorebirds, and some seabirds, and typically do not cause disease. Some avian-origin IAVs that have previously spilled over into domestic poultry have developed a highly pathogenic phenotype and have become important pathogens affecting both wild birds and poultry. These avian-origin IAVs have important implications to the product
Andrew M. Ramey