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The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica

January 1, 2008

The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica (LIMA) is the first true-color, high-spatial-resolution image of the seventh continent. It is constructed from nearly 1100 individually selected Landsat-7 ETM+ scenes. Each image was orthorectified and adjusted for geometric, sensor and illumination variations to a standardized, almost seamless surface reflectance product. Mosaicing to avoid clouds produced a high quality, nearly cloud-free benchmark data set of Antarctica for the International Polar Year from images collected primarily during 1999-2003. Multiple color composites and enhancements were generated to illustrate additional characteristics of the multispectral data including: the true appearance of the surface; discrimination between snow and bare ice; reflectance variations within bright snow; recovered reflectance values in regions of sensor saturation; and subtle topographic variations associated with ice flow. LIMA is viewable and individual scenes or user defined portions of the mosaic are downloadable at Educational materials associated with LIMA are available at

Publication Year 2008
Title The Landsat Image Mosaic of Antarctica
DOI 10.1016/j.rse.2008.07.006
Authors Robert Bindschadler, P. Vornberger, A. Fleming, A. Fox, J. Mullins, D. Binnie, S.J. Paulsen, Brian J. Granneman, D. Gorodetzky
Publication Type Article
Publication Subtype Journal Article
Series Title Remote Sensing of Environment
Index ID 70033005
Record Source USGS Publications Warehouse
USGS Organization Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) Center