Lead poisoning and other causes of mortality of trumpeter swans were investigated. Necropsies or Pb concentrations in livers were available for 72 trumpeter swans found dead in seven western states from 1976 to 1987; data from other published and unpublished sources also are summarized. Ingestion of lead artifacts accounted for about 20% of the known mortality of trumpeter swans in the tri-state area of Idaho, Montana and Wyoming, where the population has been declining for several decades.
|Title||Lead poisoning and other mortality factors in trumpeter swans|
|Authors||L. J. Blus, R. K. Stroud, B. Reiswig, T. McEneaney|
|Publication Subtype||Journal Article|
|Series Title||Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||Patuxent Wildlife Research Center|