Pore-evolution models from immature organic-matter (OM) -rich Barnett (0.42%Ro) and Woodford (0.49%Ro) mudstones were compared with models previously developed from low-maturity OM-lean Boquillas (Eagle Ford-equivalent) mudstones to investigate whether (1) different mineralogy (siliceous vs. calcareous) exerts different catalytic and sorption effects and influences OM-pore origin and evolution; and (2) different types of macerals show different OM pore evolution history. Laboratory gold-tube pyrolysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thin-section petrography, organic petrography, and geochemical characterization were used to investigate the role of bulk mineralogy, maceral type, and thermal maturation on OM-pore evolution. Results suggest that mineralogy has little impact on OM-pore development and evolution. Macerals, identified using both SEM (platy OM, particulate OM, organic–mineral admixtures, Tasmanites) and organic petrology (vitrinite, inertinite, amorphous organic matter [AOM]/bituminite, telalginite [Leiosphaeridia, Tasmanites]), do affect the origin and evolution of OM pores owing to differences in chemical compositions, generation kinetics, and activation-energy distributions between Tasmanites, matrix bituminite, and other types of macerals. Leiosphaeridia and Tasmanites in Woodford mudstone samples exhibit a delay in onset and a shorter period of petroleum generation and pore development compared to the matrix bituminite in the Barnett and Woodford mudstone samples. Pre-oil solid bitumen was observed to have migrated into initial primary mineral pore networks at the bitumen generation stage in both Barnett and Woodford samples. At higher levels of thermal maturation, the volume of primary mineral pores decreases and the pore volume composed of modified mineral pores and OM pores becomes greater. Pore evolution and pore-type heterogeneity in these mudstones is a function of the initial mineral pore network, types of kerogen and macerals, and generation kinetics of individual macerals upon thermal maturation.
|Title||Pore-types and pore-network evolution in Upper Devonian-Lower Mississippian Woodford and Mississippian Barnett mudstones: Insights from laboratory thermal maturation and organic petrology|
|Authors||Lucy T. Ko, Stephen C. Ruppel, Robert G. Loucks, Paul C. Hackley, Tongwei Zhang, Deyong Shao|
|Publication Subtype||Journal Article|
|Series Title||International Journal of Coal Geology|
|Record Source||USGS Publications Warehouse|
|USGS Organization||Geology, Minerals, Energy, and Geophysics Science Center|