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USGS and National Park Service scientists compared three strategies for responding to invasive species: Resisting, accepting, or directing. The results of a case study looking at invasion of nonnative brook trout, each strategy was capable of producing positive outcomes. 

Management of invasive species is usually focused on early detection and rapid removal, which can be effective in the early stages of invasion. Past these early stages, or when nonnative species are highly valued by some stakeholders, removal of invaders may be costly, difficult, and controversial. USGS and National Park Service scientists applied the ‘Resist-Accept-Direct’ decision-making framework to a case study of nonnative brook trout introduced into an environment with threatened bull trout. Using simulations, the authors compared the effectiveness of strategies focused on resisting, accepting, or directing invasion. The results indicated that positive responses are possible from all strategies. The authors concluded that the Resist-Accept-Direct framework can be applied to address introduced species. It can provide managers with a broad range of options for management and restoration solutions, even when early detection and rapid removal are not possible. 

Dunham, J.B., Benjamin, J.R., Lawrence, D.J., and Clifford, K., 2022, Resist, accept, and direct responses to biological invasions- a social-ecological perspective: Fisheries Management and Ecology, Online.