August 25, 2023 — GPS survey equipment deployed in Kīlauea south caldera
HVO scientists have been closely monitoring the earthquakes in Kīlauea's summit region over the past weeks. Most earthquakes have occurred at depths of 1–2 miles (2–3 kilometers) below the surface, with no upward migration detected. Along with the slow inflation recorded by summit tiltmeters, these data indicate that Kīlauea's summit is becoming increasingly pressurized. Similar episodes of earthquake and ground deformation activity occurred in November 2020 and August 2021, prior to eruptions in December 2020 and September 2021. To better record this activity, HVO staff deployed temporary GPS survey equipment in south caldera. Their positions will be compared with those from previous years to discern subtle patterns of ground deformation associated with this ongoing activity. USGS photo by A. Ellis.