Hard water precipitates in copper pipes

Copper pipes filled with solidified calcium and magnesium

Detailed Description

Calcium and magnesium ions tend to precipitate as mineral solids on the surfaces of pipes and especially on the hot heat exchanger
surfaces of boilers. The resulting buildup of scale can impede water flow in pipes and reduce the efficiency of heating elements.

From USGS Circular 1352: Water Quality in the Glacial Aquifer System, Northern United States, 1993–2009.


Image Dimensions: 144 x 116

Location Taken: US