HVO geologist samples tephra
On July 27, 2023, an HVO geologist sampled tephra from one of Kīlauea's largest explosive eruptions (900 CE) that is preserved in soil found on the volcano's south flank near the coast. Under the supervision of a Hawai‘i Volcanoes National Park archaeologist, to ensure we would not disturb any cultural resources, geologists dug holes about 20 centimeters (8 inches) down into soil preserved in low spots between lava flows. Soil and tephra samples were collected, which will help HVO geologists better understand explosive eruptions at Kīlauea. USGS photo by Kendra J. Lynn.