Magnitude-6.0 and larger earthquakes since 1868 on Island of Hawai‘i.
Map of magnitude 6.0 and larger earthquakes since 1868 on the Island of Hawai‘i. Ruptures of large earthquakes are on near-horizontal decollement faults at the base of seaward-slipping volcano flanks of Kīlauea, Mauna Loa, and Hualālai (black dots). Deeper, upper mantle earthquakes with depth (Z) greater than 15 km are more broadly distributed (red dots) and are caused by flexure of the lithosphere due to the load of the island's weight. Outlined regions are rupture areas inferred from aftershock zones or flank geometry and contemporary seismicity.